JapanReview,1993,4:59-82
DentalAffinitiesamongPolynesianand
Circum-PolynesianPopulations
TsunehikoHanihara
D{㌘
αr跏 επ∫(ゾ ノlnato〃ry,SapporoルledicalCollege
(Recieved10August1992,accepted24September1992)
Metricandnon-metricdentalvariationswerestudiedinanumberofskeletal
andcastsamplesthatoriginatedfromPolynesiaandcircum-Polynesia.Within
thePolynesianpopulations,theTongasamplealignswithasamplefromMarquesas.SeveralHawaiiansamplesformarelativelytightcluster.Thesample
fromtheSocietyIslandsshowsadispersedarrangementExtendingthecomparisonstoincludePolynesian,Micronesian,Melanesian,SoutheastAsian,and
EastAsiansamplesre-affirmstheexistenceofarelativelyhomogeneous
Polynesianmorphologicalpattern,andthedistinctivenessofthePolynesianMicronesianpopulationcomplex.AmongthePolynesiansamples,Tongashows
closeraffinitytoSoutheastAsiansthantheotherPolynesians.ThisfindingsupportstheorthodoxviewfortheinitialsettlementofancestralPolynesiansin
TongaandSamoa.ThedentaltraitsofSoutheastAsianswithlesseradmixture
withEastAsianinvadersfromthenorthhavesomethingincommonwiththose
oftheprehistoricJomoneseandtheirlineagesinJapan,Polynesians,andMicronesians.ItislikelythatthePolynesians,Micronesians,andJomoneseshare
ancestraltieswiththeindigenousinhabitantsofSoutheastAsia.
Keywords:Polynesians,SoutheastAsians,Jomonese,Dentalmorphology,Physical
anthropology.
INTRODUCTION
OceaniacomprisesthethreegeographicalareasofMelanesia,Micronesia,and
Polynesia.Polynesia,withits287islands,isthelargestgeographicsubdivisionof
Oceania.InPolynesia,twomajorculturalareastermedwesternPolynesiaand
central-marginalPolynesiaweredefinedbyE.G.Burrowsin1938(Bellwood,
1979).WesternPolynesiacomprisesTonga,Samoa,Tuvalu,andadjacentsmallislands,togetherwithallthePolynesianoutliers.CentralPolynesiaincludesthe
Hawaiian,Society,southernCook,andAustralIslands,aswellasRapa.Marginal
PolynesiaincludestheMarquesas,Mangareva,EasterIsland,andNewZealand.
Today,archaeologistsrefertothecentralandmarginalgroupsas"eastern
Polynesia".RecentworksonthefairlyhomogeneouslanguagesofPolynesiasuggestformationofaproto-PolynesianlanguageintheTonga-Samoaarea.SubsequentPolynesianlinguisticsplitsarefairywellestablished(Green,1966;Bellwood,
59
60TsunehikoHanihara
1979;PawleyandGreen,1986).
TheoriginandmigrationofpeopleswithinthegreatPolynesiantrianglehave
longbeenmattersforspeculation.Physicalanthropologistsandrelatedscientists
havetriedandarestilltryingtogetatthefacts,butevennowanumberofmattersremainunexplained(Marshall,1956;Bellwood,1975,1978,1979;Pietrusewsky,1971,1984;Heyerdahl,!978;Kirch,1982;Kirchetal.,1989).TheearliestknownsettlementsintheislandsofeasternMelanesia,fromthesoutheastern
SolomonsthroughtoTongaarecloselyassociatedwiththespreadanddevelopmentoftheLapitaCulture.TheLapitaCultureasrepresentedinTongafromca.
3,000-3,600yearsB.P.isregardedasbeingearlyPolynesian,withtheinitialLapita
settlementofSamoaalsotakingplaceby3,000yearsB.P.(Groube,1971;Bellwood,1975,1978,1979).
ItisnowwidelyacceptedthattheeasternMelanesiansandthePolynesians,who
togetherformalinguisticandtoalesserextentaculturalcontinuum,arephysicallyverydifferent(Howells,1970,1979;Pietrusewsky,1971,1984;Kirchetal.,
1989).AlthoughnosufficientanalysesofLapitaskeletalmaterialsareavailable,
Pietrusewsky(1985)andKirchetal.(1989)readilyguessthatthepeoplecarrying
LapitaCulturalComplexwouldbeclosetothePolynesianphenotype,andtothe
islandSoutheastAsiansbasedonthemandibularanddentalfeatures,respectively.
Inthepastfewdecades,therehasbeengreatprogressinourunderstandingofthe
Polynesianislands,theirhistory,themodeoftheirsettlement,andtherelationshipsbetweenthem.Physicalanthropologicalfindingsbasedondentalandcranial
morphology,aswellashumangenetics,havemadeitpossibletosaywithsome
certaintythatthefirstsettlementsweremadebymigrantsfromSoutheastAsia
(Riesenfeld,1956;Coon,1962;Simmons,1962;Howells,1973,1979;Brues,1977;
TurnerandScott,1977;Pietrusewsky,1984,1985,1990a,b;Serjeantson,1984;
Kirch,1986;Turner,1987,1989;Kirchetal.,1989).
Meanwhile,Howells(1973)andPietrusewsky(1990b)noteamarkedseparation
betweenwesternMicronesia(theMarianas,Palau,andYap),andeasternaswell
ascentralMicronesia,theso-callednuclearMicronesia,e.g.Truk,Ponape,Kosrae,Marshalls,andGilberts.Archaeologicalrecordsandlinguisticevidencesubstantiatetheeast-westdivision(Bender,1971;Bellwood,1975,1978,1979;Craib,
1983).WesternMicronesiahadbeensettledabout3,000yearsB.P.bypopulations
withlinguisticandculturalaffinitieswithpeopleofthePhilippinesornortheastern
Indonesia(Bellwood,1975,1978,1979;Serjeantson,1984).Turner'sfindingssuggestthattheGuamaniansoriginatedinthesouthernislandsofSoutheastAsia,
mostlikelyinBorneo,byaPolynesian-derivedcolonizationofMicronesia(Turner,
1990b).Ontheotherhand,attemptshavebeenmadetoclassifythenuclearMicronesianlanguageswiththeeasternOceanicsubgroup,andBellwood(1979)describedthattheregionwasfirstsettledaround3,300yearsB.P.fromthenorthern
NewHebrides.HefurthersuggestedthatthenuclearMicronesiansmaybeclose
cousinstothePolynesians(Bellwood,1979),whilePietrusewsky(1990a,b)confirmsthePonapeans-EasternMelanesianassociation.
Inmypreviousstudies,ithasbeenpointedoutthattheaboriginalpopulations
σ
AffinitiesamongPolynesiansandCircum-Polynesians61
inSoutheastAsia,withlesseradmixturewithChinese,sharedcommondentaland
craniofacialmorphologyandprobablyacommongenepoolwithnotonlymodern
SoutheastAsiansbutalsothePacificpopulations(WesternMicronesiansand
Polynesians),theNeolithicJomonpeopleandthesuccessorsinJapan(Hanihara
1990a,b,1991a,b,c,1992a,b,c,d).Basedonsuchfindings,thepresentstudyis
focusedonthedentalvariationofseveralPolynesianandcircum-Polynesian
populationsandtheassessmentofthedentalrelationshipsbetweenPolynesians,
Micronesians,Melanesians,andEastaswellasSoutheastAsians.
,
MATERIALSANDMETHODS
Thispaperisbasedonobservationsandmeasurementsmadechieflyin1988and
19890nthepermanentdentitionofanumberofskeletalcollectionsatBerniceP
.
BishopMuseuminHonolulu,Hawaii.Thosetobediscussedhereincludeseveral
cranialandcastserieshousedatUniversitiesandMuseumsinJapanandtheUnitedStates.Tablelindicatesthenumberofindividualsinvestigated,thelocations
wherethematerialsarecurated,andtheprovenienceofeachsample.Completeor
substantiallycompleteadultspecimenswereselectedforrecordingmetricandnonmetricdata.Themetricdatawererecordedonmalespecimens.Mesiodistalcrown
diametersweremeasuredonalltheteeth,exceptforthemaxillaryandmandibular
thirdmolars.Buccolingualdiameterswereomitted,becausethesearelessfree
frompost-natalenvironmentalinfluencethanmesiodistalones(Sofaeretal .,1971;
TownsendandBrown,1978;KolakowskiandBailit,1981;Matsumura1989).The
non-metriccharacterswererecordedonbothmaleandfemalespecimens,because
sexualdimorphismwasinsignificantinmostofthesamplesobserved
.Asregards
thecriteriaforclassificationofnon-metrictraits,thedetailedinformationisgiven
elsewhere(Hanihara,1990b,1991a,c,1992b,c).Bothmetricandnon-metricdata
werebasedonrightsideobservation.Whenarighttoothwasmissingorbadly
damaged,thecorrespondinglefttoothwasmeasuredorobserved.
Table1.Materialsused(N:numbersofmalesamples)
PopulationlabelNProvenience
Polynesia[B.P.BishopMuseum]
Tonga7SkeletalremainsfromtheTongaIslandsincludingafewspecimensfromthe
SamoaIslands(pre-historic)
Marquesas21PrehistoricMarquesans,HaneDunesite(MUH-1),Uahuka,2,000-1,700years
B.P.
Society15SkeletalremainsfromtheSocietyIslands,includingsmallnumbersofspecimens
fromGambierandTuamotuIslands(pre-historic)
Hawaii83SkeletalremainsfromtheHawaiiIslandexcavatedfromSouthPoint,including
smallnumbersofmaterialsfromMaui,Lanai,andMolokaiIslands(pre-historic)
Oahu(Mokapu)84Pre-historicHawaiiansexcavatedfromMokapusite,OahuIsland,600-500years
B.P.
62TsunehikoHanihara
Kauai25SkeletalremainsfromKauaiIsland(pre-historic)
Comparativepopulations
EastAsia
Japanese483xRecentmain-islandJapanese[Univ.ofTokyo]
Chinese97*Manchurian,LiaoningandKirinPrefecture,19A.D.[Univ.ofTokyo,Kyoto
Univ.]
Korean36*RecentKoreans[Univ.ofTokyo,KyotoUniv.]
Jomonese106Middle,LateandtheLatestJomonperiods(ca.5,300-2,300yearsB.P.),excavatedfrommanysitesinHonshu,Japan[Univ.ofTokyo,NationalScience
Museum,Tokyo]
Hirota21SkeletalremainsexcavatedfromHirotasite,Tanegashimaisland,Nanseiisland
chain(2,300-1,700yearsB.P.)[KyushuUniv.]
SakishimaIslands39RecentSakishimaIslanders,Miyako,Ishigaki,Hateruma,andYonaguni-lsland
[Univ.ofTokyo,KyotoUniv.]
Ainu108RecentHokkaidoAinu[Univ.ofTokyo,SapporoMed.College]
SoutheastAsia
Negrito21RecentAetatribe,BataanPeninsula,Luzon[Univ.ofTokyo]
Filipino14RecentFilipinos,Marcosvillage,Luzon[Univ.ofTokyo]
Dajak12RecentIbantribe,Pontianak,KapuriRiver,Borneo[Univ.ofTokyo,Kyoto
Univ.]
EarlyThailand37EarlyMetalageofThailand(ca.3,000-6,000yearsB.P.),BanChiangsite,Nong
HandistrictofUdonThaniprovinceinNortheastThailand[Univ.ofHawa
Manoa]
ルlicron(∼5此謬
Guam52ChamorrosfromGuamIsland,pre-historic(pre-Spanishepoch),15A.D.[B.P.
BishopMuseum]
Tinian13Pre-contactpeoplefromTinianIslandincludingaspecimensfromSaipanIsland
[B.P.BishopMuseum]
Ponape14RecentpopulationsfromPonapeIslandincludingafewmaterialsfromtheTruk
Islands.[Univ.ofTokyo]
Melanesia
Fiji8RecentFijiIsland,excavatedatearly20thcentury,probablyintermarriagedwith
Tongans,includingafewspecimensfromNewHebridesandNewGuinea[B.P.
BishopMuseum,Univ。ofTokyo亅
*:Maleandfemalesamplesarecombined
,sincethesepopulationswereusedinanalysesbasedonthediscrete
crowntraits.
WithacomputerprogramcodedbyK.Hanihara,distanceanalysisbasedonQmodecorrelationcoefficientsbetweeneverypairofsampleswereappliedtotwo
setsofmeasurementsofdifferentcombinationsofsamples.Fornon-metrictraits,
BalakrishnanandSanghvi'sB-squareddistancewascomputed(Balakrishnanand
Sanghvi,1968;Constandse-Westermann,1972).℃lusteranalysis,themultidimensionalscalingmethod,andtheneighborjoiningmethoddevelopedbySaitou
andNei(1987)wereappliedtothedistancematricesobtained.
POPULATIONH-STORYOFJAPANESE
ConcerningtheaffinitiesofmodernJapanese,thepointstobeconsideredin
AffinitiesamongPolynesiansandCircum-Polynesians63
combinationare1)thattheJomontraditionalthoughhighlymodified,isstillmaintainedinpartofJapan'slocalarea,forexample,Hokkaido,theNanseiIsland
chain,etc.;2)thatthecloseaffinitiesbetweenNortheastAsiansandJapaneseis
abundantlyevidentafterthestartoftheYayoiage(2,300-1,700yearsB.P.);3)
thatpartoftheAeneolithicYayoipopulations,asrepresentedbyspecimensexcavatedfromtheDoigahamasiteinthewestern-endofHonshu,Kanenokumasitein
northernKyushu,etc.,werelikelyimmigrantsfromNortheastAsiaviatheKorean
Peninsulashowingclosesimilaritywithmodernmain-islandJapaneseandNortheastAsians;4)Jomonese(12,000-2,300yearsB.P.),present-dayAinu,Nansei
Islandersandsomeothergeographicallyisolatedpopulationsarecloselyrelatedto
eachotherandtopeopleinSoutheastAsia,buttheydifferlargelyfromamajority
ofthemodernmain-islandJapanese(Turner,1976,1979,1987,1989,1990a;Hanihara,K.,1985,1987,1991;Hanihara,1989a,b,c,1990a,b,c,1991a,b,c,1992a,
b,c,d;DodoandIshida,1990;Kozintsev,1990).Basedonsuchfacts,thepopulationsfromgeographicallyisolatedJapanaredistinguishedfrommain-island
JapaneseandarereferredtoasJomoneselineages.
RESULTS
Analysisbasedondiscretecrowntraits
Thefirstanalysisisbasedonthediscretetoothcrowncharacters.Thefrequenciesofninenon-metriccrowntraitsforPolynesiansamplesaregiveninTable2.
Basedonthefrequencies,B-squareddistanceanalysiswasapplied.Table3shows
thedistancecoefficientsbetweeneverypairofsamplesobtained.Thedendrogram,
resultingfromthegroupaverageclusteringtechniqueappliedtothedistancematrixofTable3,isshowninFigure1.
Table2.Fequencydistributionsofnon-metriccrowntraitsineachsample(in%,parenthesis;numberof
teeth)
ample
十 十
Shovel(UI1)*Carabelli(UM1)Hypocone(UM2)S
ヨー
一
一
ト
ー
一ト
ー
Marquesas-Society16.758.325.0.(24)13.386.7(45)95.14.9(41)
Hawaii5.550.943.6(55)13.286.8(121)85.314.7(102)
Oahu(Mokapu)16.568.515.0(127)18.481.6(179)90.89.2(152)
6thcusp(LM1)7thcusp(LM1)Deflectingwrinkle(LMI)
十
一
38.961.1(36)2.497.6(41)28.671.4(35)
45.554.5(101)3.596.5(113)33.366.7(90)
43.256.8(132)6.993.1(144)37.362.7(118)
十
一
十
一
64TsunehikoHanihara
Dist.trie.crest(LM1)Protostvlid(LM114cusppattern(LM2
十
一
十
一
5.194.9(39)5.494.6(37)33.366.7(36)
13.087.0(100)5.095.0(101)46.054.0(113)
13.786.3(131)7.392.7(138)45.854.2(142)
*Shove1:十
十>1
.Omm;1.Omm>十>05mm;一
く0.5mmindepth.
Table3.B-squaredistancecoefficientsbetweeneverypairofsamplesbasedondiscretecrowncharacters
Samplename1234567
1Japanese2KoreanO.6494
3ChineseO.74941.17844Jomonese1.23071.31732.93685Hirota2.15962.41924.27690.74886SakishimaIsl.1.10111.37762.47730.56210.75407Ainu1.82992.18883.45550.58740.75770.59728Negrito1.81311.91712.77001.13150.76241.25350.7749
9EarlyThailand2.35962.08943.85511.23171.00470.96141.0648
100ahu(Mokapu)1.38391.61342.69890.86031.05450.86911.0433
11Hawaii1.60861.92453.21240.48350.71460.60241.1392
12Marquesas-Soc.0.95601.13322.53640.62110.56060.46181.0463
13Guam1.27660.98792.27520.66831.28180.65411.4028
Samplename8910111213
8Negrito9EarlyThailand1.0068100ahu(Mokapu)0.52241.297011HawaiiO.53770.30200.907012Marquesas-Soc.0.65920.32970.35071.127113GuamO.92300.53790.62540.48931.4134-
ThedendrogramindicatesamajordistinctionbetweenthreeEastAsiansampies,ormain-islandJapanese,Koreans,andChinese,andothersamples.Thetwo
majorclusterscorrespondtothesinodontdentalgroupandthesundadontdental
group(Turner,1987,1989).Inthisfigure,thePolynesiansamplesformatight
cluster,whichlinkswiththeGuamsample.ThePolynesian-Guamgroupaligns
withthesampleofearlyThailand.Thisclusteristhenfoundtolinktothecluster
containingJomonese,SakishimaIsland,Ainu,andHirotasamples.TheNegrito
sampleattachestothesetwomajorsundadontsubdivisions.
Figure2showsaclusteringofrelationshipsbasedontheneighborjoining
methodwhichresultsfromtheapplicationofthedistancecoefficientsgivenin
Table3.AgainamajordistinctionisindicatedbetweenthethreeEastAsiansam一
十
一
AffinitiesamongPolynesiansandCircum-Polynesians65
Japanese
Korean
Chi皿ese
Jamonese
SakishimaIslands
Ainu
Hirota
EarlyThailand
Oahu価kapp
Haavaii
Marquesas-Society
Guam
Negri七 〇
Fig.1.GroupaverageclusteranalysisappliedtoB-squaredistancebasedongdiscretecrowncharactersin
Table3.
piesandtheothers.TheinternalstructureofthePolynesian-Guamclusterandits
inclusionwiththeearlyThailandsampleisidenticaltotherelationshipfoundin
thepreviousresult.ThesampleofNegritosislooselyattachedtothoseofthe
JomoneseandtheirlineagesinJapan.
TheconsistentabsenceofanycloseassociationbetweenthePolynesiansamples
andthesinodontEastAsiansemphasizesthatthecomparativeframeworkshould
befocusedonthesundadontpopulations.
Analysesbasedondentalmeasurements
Table4givesthebasicstatisticalinformationofdentalmeasurementsfor6
Polynesiansamples.DistancemeasuresbasedonQ-modecorrelationcoefficients
wereappliedtothedentalmeasurements(Table5).Usingthedistancematrix
showninTable5,adendrogramandatwodimensionalscattergramweremade
withthegroupaverageclusteringtechniqueandthemultidimensionalscaling
method,respectively(Figures3&4).Usingthefirsttwodimensions,99.3%ofthe
totalvarianceisexpressedinFigure4.
AcloserelationshipisfoundbetweenTongaandMarquesas.SmallersubgroupingswithinthisclusterrevealatiebetweenOahuandKauai.TheSocietyIslands
andHawaiiconstructasecondlargecluster.InFigure4,theSocietysampleisthe
mostisolatedofallgroupsincludedinthiscomparison.
Thesamestatisticalprocedureswereappliedtodentalmeasurementsof18samplesfromPolynesia,Micronesia,Melanesia,SoutheastAsia,andtheJapanese
66TsunehikoHanihara
Fig.2.IntergrouprelationshipsdrawnbytheneighborjoiningmethodbasedontheB-squaredistancecoefficientsonTable3.
Table4.Basicstatisticsofmesiodistalcrowndiametersinthepermanentdentition(male)
PopulationUpperlstincisorUpper2ndincisorUppercanineNM
eanS.D.C.V.NMeanS.D.C.V.NMeanS.D.C.V.
Tonga48.78.436.05047.14.218.03158.01.779.097
Marquesas138.42.495.059156.82.598.088167.72.421.054
Society48.15.059.00247.20.116.01648.30.028.033
Hawa 58.30.514.062326.89.542.079477.89.443.056
0ahu(Mokapu)478.46.601.071636.87.510.074697.87.355.045
Kauai58.48.661.07886.91.653.094107.76.046.060
PopulationUpper3rdpremolarUpper4thpremolarUpperlstmolarNM
eanS.D.C.V.NMeanS.D.C.V.NMeanS.D.C.V.
Tonga67.69.679.08867.22.496.069611.33.719.064
Marquesas187.11.315.044176.73.467.0692010.39.418.040
Society77.72.345.04567.22.463.064810.91.721.066
Hawaii487.15.422.059506.66.480.0725210.49.582.056
0ahu(Mokapu)737.20.362.050756.63.428.0657210.43.483.046
Kauai116.98.556.080136.45.478.0741410.36.528.051
AffinitiesamongPolynesiansandCircum-Polynesians67
Upper2ndmolarLowerlstincisorLower2ndincisorP
opulationNM
eanS.D.C.V.NMeanS.D.C.V.NMeanS.D.C.V.
Tonga510.79.599.05555.69.316.05656.38.099.015
Marquesas209.88.389.039115.27.301.057135.87.344.059
Society610.30.403.03955.59.078.01465.92.186.032
Hawaii4410.10.545.054175.30.240.045255.88.294.050
0ahu(Mokapu)7210.01.677.068395.32.299.056486.07.367.060
Kauai1510.25.855.08385.24.235.045105.93.323.055
LowercanineLower3rdpremolarLower4thpremolar
PopulationNM
eanS.D.C.V.NMeanS.D.C.V.NMeanS.D.C.V.
Tonga57.46.163.02267.88.544.06968.07.436.054
Marquesas146.85.431.063167.18.418.058167.28.454.062
Society57.12.055.00867.12.439.06287.57.465.061
Hawaii386.94.393.057467.04.469.067497.12.517.073
0ahu(Mokapu)596.95.390.056657.16.436.061677.13.473.066
Kauai146.79.334.049137.07.556.079146.98.557.080
opulationNM
LowerlstmolarLower2ndmolarP
eanS.D.C.V.NMeanS.D.C.V.
Tonga612.46.404.032612.11.4956.041
Marquesas1511.48.405.0351511.10.5682.051
Society1011.84.646.0551011.58.8960.077
Hawaii4611.27.476.0424910.91.6449.059
0ahu(Mokapu)5711.45.490.0436110.91.6759.062
Kauai1711.22.520.0461610.82.7320.068
Table5.DistancematrixbasedonQ-modecorrelationcoefficientsappliedtomesiodistalcrowndiameters
Samplename123456
1Tonga2MarquesasO.57183Society1.72381.48874Hawaii1.60371.66520.493450ahu(Mokapu)0.85600.82731.61871.20576KauaiO.78841.12981.64361.09730.6619一
68TsunehikoHanihara
Tonga
Marquesas
OahuQVIokapu)
Kauai
Society
Hapvaii
-
1.00
Fig.3.ClusteranalysisappliedtothedistancematrixtransformedfromQ-modecorrelationcoeffic
Table5.
Fig.4.Twodimensionalexpressionofthemultidimensionalscalingmethod(MDS)appliedtothesamed
tancematrixusedinFigure3,accountingfor99.3%oftotalvariance
.
Archipelago.ThedistancematrixobtainedisgiveninTable6
.Figuresisadendrogramoftherelationshipobtainedfromthegroupaverageclusteranalysisof
thedistancematrixinthisTable.
A,basicdivisionoccursbetweenthePolynesian-Micronesianconstellation ,includingtherecentSoutheastAsiansamples
,andtheonethatcontainsthe
Jomoneseandtheirlineages,theFijian,andearlyThailandsamples
.Withinthe
formercluster,afurtherdistinctionismadebetweenPolynesianandMicronesian
samples.ThePonapesamplefallswithinthePolynesiansub-branch
,whilethe
AffinitiesamongPolynesiansandCircum-Polynesians69
Table6.DistancematrixbasedonQ-modecorrelationcoefficientsbetweeneverypairofsamplesappliedto
mesiodistalcrowndiameters
Samplename1234567
1Tonga2MarquesasO.23533SocietyO.91430.93394HawaiiO.63220.62780.506950ahu(Mokapu)0.49340.57001.21810.49016KauaiO.78850.74291.34030.48240.39057NegritoO.98801.18271.09311.33780.88561:33938FilipinoO.77681.14841.05780.96210.78680.94950.5721
9Dajak1.34961.28841.25381.16710.74851.09410.7084
10EarlyThailandO.90600.94521.16951.15801.32831.02761.4397
11Fiji1.48081.17551.23641.29381.55291.13031.4533
12SakishimaIsl.1.67031.64281.11261.30471.54810.86481.1028
13Hirota1.20691.12141.11441.41881.36410.97430.8834
14Jomonese1.12421.14141.49231.70501.35101.03351.0820
15Ainu1.37111.60101.15051.28961.07901.26710.9070
16GuamO.60230.61530.88091.09070.78511.46500.6928
17TinianO.90070.73640.47590.84551.19501.41971.2146
18PonapeO.34130.33740.96600.39410.48670.60941.0444
Samplename891011121314
8Filipino
gDajak1.035410EarlyThailand1.50521.121811Fiji1.37260.95270.714612SakishimaIsl.1.01751.19240.93820.668413HirotaO.89831.47691.00051.05070.354514Jomonese1.05041.37420.73860.79150.52800.250815AinuO.89200.97110.98951.18880.81770.85090.7167
16GuamO.91330.80831.32351.22251.78601.50451.2915
17TinianL6120111440.77691.08801.41521.30711.2693
18PonapeO.85131.24541.11301.14601.56371.46461.4845
Samplename15161718
15Ainu16Guam1.096617TinianO.54970.989418PonapeO.66920.97731.5124一
70TsunehikoHanihara
Tonga
Marquesas
Pompe
H
W稷l
OahuQKokapu)
Kauai
Society
Tinian
GUam
Filipino
Negri七
〇
Dajak
EarlyThailand
Fiji
Jaronese
Hiro七a
SakishimaIslands
Ai皿u
LQ450
Fig.5.GroupaverageclusteranalysisappliedtothedistancematrixshowninTable6.
SocietysampleiswithintheMicronesianone.AsseeninFigure5,theTongaand
Marquesassamplesarecloselyrelatedtoeachother.
Themultidimensionalscalingmethodwasappliedtothesamedistancematrix
(Figures6a&6b).Thefirsttwodimensionsaccountfor70.0%ofthetotal
variance(Figure6a),thefirstandthirdaxesexpress67.5%oftotalvariance(Figure6b),and91.8%ofthetotalvariancecanbeaccountedforintheserepre-
sentations.
ThemostperipherallypositionedsampleisFijiinFigure6a.ThePolynesianand
MicronesiansamplesarecloselyrelatedtoeachotherandformonegroupinFigure6a,whilesamplesfromGuamandTinianformasub-branchwithinthe
Polynesi穗-MicronesiangroupinFigure6b.Aclearseparationbetweenthe
JomoneseandtheirlineagesandthePolynesian-Micronesiangroupisevident.The
SoutheastAsiansamplesoccupyanintermediatepositionbetweenthetwogroups
onthefirstaxis.InthefourSoutheastAsiangroups,theearlyThailandsampleis
plottedatanisolatedpositiononthesecondaxis,suggestingatemporaldifference.However,thissampleislinkedwiththerecentSoutheastAsiansonthefirst
andthirdaxes.
Figure7representstheinter-grouprelationshipproducedbytheneighborjoiningmethodbasedonthedistancematrixofTable6.Hereagain,theresultindi一
AffinitiesamongPolynesiansandCircum-Polynesians71
Fig.6a.TwodimensionalgraphofMDSappliedtothesamedistancematrixusedinFigure5
varianceisexpressedinthisFigure.
Fig.6b.TwodimensionalexpressionusingthefirstandthirdaxesinthesameanalysisofFigure6a
totalvarianceisaccountedfor.
,70.0%oftotal
,67.5%of
72TsunehikoHanihara
H窈dli
MarquesasO
ahuQKokapu)
..1¥/TongaKa瓜al
Society
Fiji
Ponape
Tinia皿
GUam
Filipi豆o
Saki8himaIslaユds
rota
Ne…t・D
JamneseHi
ajakEa「'yThailand
Ainu
Fig.7.lnter-populationrelationshipsdrawnbytheneighborjoiningmethodappliedtothedistancematrixin
Table6.
GatesanisolationoftheFijiansamplefromtheothers.ThePolynesian-MicronesianclusterincludestheassociationoftheSocietyandGuam-Tiniansamples,and
thePonapeandPolynesiansamples.InthePolynesiansub-branch,theTongaand
Marquerassamplesshowaclosetie,andsamplesfromtheHawaiianIslandsform
afinalcluster.Inthisfigure,theSoutheastAsiansamplesoccupyanintermediate
positionbetweenthePolynesian-MicronesiangroupandtheJomoneseandtheir
lineage.
DISCUSSION
Theresultsobtainedinthisstudyallowafewtentativeconclusionsregarding
biologicalrelationshipsandpossibleoriginsandaffinitiesofPolynesianand
circum-Polynesianpopulations.
ColonizationwithinPolynesia
ConcerningtheinitialpeoplingofPolynesia,thewestPolynesianArchipelagoes
ofTongaandSamoaalongwithcertainsmallislands,suchasFutunaandNiuatoputapu,werecolonizedbymembersoftheLapitaCulturalComplexabout3,0003,600yearsB.P.(Goldman,1970;Groube,1971;Bellwood,1975,1978,1979;
Green,1979,1981;Kirch,1982,1986;Pietrusewsky,1985;Kirchetal.,1989).ColonizationoftheuninhabitedFiji-Tonga-Samoaareaproceededthefinalpopulating
ofthePolynesiantriangle(Green,1981;Kirch,1982).AsregardstheinitialsettlementandcolonizationofeasternPolynesia,theMarquesasIslandsseemtohave
servedasamajordispersalcentertoSociety,Hawaiian,Easter,andNewZealand
Islandsbasedonarchaeologicalevidence(Suggs,1961;Sinoto,1968,1970,1979,
AffinitiesamongPolynesiansandCircum-Polynesians73
1983).TheSocietyIslandsserved,moreover,asasecondarydispersalcenterto
HawaiiandNewZealand(Jennings
,1979).Thisdispersalreconstruction,illus-
tratedinFigure8,hassupportedfromlinguisticanalysis(Green
,1966).Onthe
otherhand,Kirch(1986)hasrejectedthesehypothesesasbeinginaccurateandnot
usefulmodelsofeasternPolynesiansettlement.Heregardstheavailableevidence
asbeinginsufficient(Kirch,1986).Someminorcriticismfortheorthodoxviewhas
alsobeenofferedbyBiggs(1972)andBellwood(1975)
.
一一一一きLPrimarythrust
EastPolynesiandispersal
一 一 \Sec。n,is。ydise。 。sal,dibat。d
Fig.8.TheorthodoxscenarioofEastPolynesiandispersals
,modifiedfromJennings(1979,FigureI,1).
TheresultsobtainedinthepresentstudysuggestthatthesamplesfromMarquesasshowrelativelycloseaffinitiestothosefromTonga.Asfarasmetricdental
traitsareconcerned,theresultssupportthehypothesisforthecolonizationofthe
MarquesasfromwesternPolynesia.Ontheotherhand
,thesamplefromSociety
formsasinglebranchseparatedfromthedivisioncontainingotherPolynesiansampies.ThesamplefromHawaiiismostcloselyrelatedtothatofSociety.TheSocietysampleisslightlymoreliketheMarquesansamplethanlikethoseofTonga
Oahu,andKauaionthebasisofdentalmeasurements(Table5)
,
.Themetricde-
ntalcharactersofthesamplesfromtheHawaiianIslandshavesomethingincommonwiththoseoftheTonga-MarquesasgroupandSociety
.Thisindicatesthatthe
HawaiianIslandgrouphasaprobabilityofbeingbothTonga-MarquesasandSocietyrelated.TherelationshipsfoundinTablesandFigures3&4maybe
fore,inpartparalleltotheorderedstagesofPolynesianprehistory(Suggs
Sinoto,1968,1970,1979;Jennings,1979):(1)settlementoftheMarquesasIslands
fromTonga-Samoa;(2)settlementoftheSocietyIslandsfromMarquesas;(3)initialcolonizationofHawaiifromMarquesasandsecondarysettlementfromthe
,there,1961;
74TsunehikoHanihara
SocietyIslands.However,thedentalevidencepresentedheredoesnotnecessarily
providefurthersupportfortheorderedstageofcolonizationwithinPolynesia
proposedbySinoto(1968,1983),Jennings(1979),andothers.
ExtendingthecomparisonstoincludeSoutheastAsians,theJomoneseandtheir
lineages,Micronesians,andMelanesians(Fijians)re-affirmsthedistinctivenessof
thePolynesianpopulations.Thecomparisonbasedonnon-metricdentaltraitsprovidesfurtherassessmentfottherelativehomogeneitywithinthePolynesian
populations.
OriginsandaffinitiesofPolynesiansandMicronesians
Anumberofprehistorians,archaeologists,andlinguistsarewillingtoacceptthe
hypothesisthatthemodernAustronesianspeakingculturesofeasternMelanesia
andPolynesiashareacommonoriginintheLapitaCulturalComplexasdescribed
previously(Bellwood,1975,1978,1979;Green,1979;Kirch,1986;Pawleyand
Green,1986;KirchandGreen,1987).Basedonarchaeologicalandhistoricallinguisticevidence,theimmediatehomelandoftheLapitaCulturalComplexisnow
believedtohavebeenlocatedsomewhereintheBismarkArchipelagoregionor
theNewBritain-NewIrelandarea.AncestralPolynesianSocietydevelopedinthis
westernhomeland(Bellwood,1979;Jennings,1979;Kirch,1986).Thebiological
evidencesuggeststhatthepeoplewithphysicalaffinitieswithEastandSoutheast
Asians,orthemakersofLapitapottery,occupiedanumberofcoastalnichesin
Melanesia.Byabout3,300yearsB.P.,theLapitapeople,whomayhavebeenrelativelylittleinfluencedbytheMelanesianpopulations,movedeasttosettleFiji
andwesternPolynesia.ItisalsoprobablethattheFijiIslandgroupreceivedlater
Melanesiansettlers,whilethePolynesiansaredirectdescendantsoftheoriginal
Lapitasettlers(Howells,1979;Pietrusewsky,1984,1985,1990b;Serjeantson,1984;
Turner,1987,1989;Kirchetal.,1989).Table6indicatesthatamongthe6Polynesiansamples,TongansshowclosermetricdentalaffinitiestoSoutheastAsiansthan
anyotherPolynesians.Atthesametime,thedistancebetweentheFijiansample
andthePolynesiansamplesisrelativelylarge.ThesesuggestthattheTongans
werederivednotfromtheeasternMelanesiandentalstockbutfromtheSoutheast
Asiandentalstock.
AccordingtoBellwood(1979),theislandsofMicronesiafallintotwobasiccategories,whichareparalleledpreciselyinthewesternandnuclearcategoriesbased
onlinguistics.Physicalanthropologicalstudiessubstantiatethewest-nucleardiviSion(Howells,1973;Pietrusewsky,1990b).Thecloseassociationofthesampleof
PonapeanswiththoseofPolynesians,andMarianaIslanders(GuamandTinian)
withtheislandSoutheastAsiansfoundinthisstudysupportsthewest-nuclear
dichotomywithinMicronesia.
BiologicalrelationshipsbetweenPolynesians,Micronesians,Jomonese,andSoutheastAsians
TheancestralrootsofthePolynesiansandMicronesiansaretracedbacktothe
JomoneseandthegeographicalrouteforthepeoplingofthePolynesianandMic一
AffinitiesamongPolynesiansandCircum-Polynesians75
ronesianregionstotheNanseiIslandchainbyBraceandhiscolleagues(Brace,et
al.,1989,1990;BraceandHunt,1990)andKatayama(1990).Thegroundsforthis
argumentarebasedmainlyonthesimilaritybetweenthecranialmorphologyof
theJomoneseandthoseofthePolynesiansaswellastheMicronesians.Braceand
Hunt(1990)feltthattheoldesthumanskeletalmaterialswhichsolidlyalignedwith
themembersofthe"Jomon-Pacificcluster"weretheearlyJomonspecimens
themselvesfromapproximately6,000-10,000yearsagoinJapan.However,morphologicalassociationsinthiscasedonotnecessarilyimplycausalrelationships.
Turner(1976,1979,1985,1987,1989,1990a,b;TurnerandSwindler,1978)
offeredtheLatePleistoceneSundalandasthesourcefromwhichsubsequentexpansionproducedthedistributionofthePolynesiansandJomonese.Turner(1987,
1990a)wentontosaythatmostevidenceindicatesthatmodernSoutheastAsians
evolvedinSoutheastAsia,andtheirdentalpattern,orsundadonty,wouldhaveto
beconsideredasthelatePleistocenestockfromwhomevolveddirectlyorindirectlymanyofthepopulationsinEastAsiaandOceania,perhapseventheAustralians.Recently,Pietrusewsky(1988)stressedaclosebiologicalconnectionbetween
theNeolithicinhabitantsofmainlandSoutheastAsiaandthemorerecentinhabitantsofPolynesia.
Negritos,oneoftheprobablerepresentativesoftheaboriginalpopulationsin
SoutheastAsia,mayhaveevolvedinthetropicalrain-forestofSundalandinthe
latePleistocene,some20,000-30,000yearsB.P.(Omoto,1984;Hanihara,1989c,
1990a,b,c,1991a,b,c,1992a,b,c,d).Theyhavebeenregardedaspeoplewith
lesseradmixturewiththeEastAsianmigrantsfromthenorthwithinthepast
2,000-4,000years,andhavebeenthebestknownofthe"Australoids"inmodern
timesinSoutheastAsia(Coon,1962;Jacob,1967;Howells,1976;Birdsell,1977;
Brues,1977;Bellwood,1978,1985;Kennedy,1979).However,asfarashuman
geneticsaswellasdentalandcraniofacialmorphologyisconcerned,thereisnot
necessarilyaconnectionbetweentheNegritosandtheAustraliansandMelanesians,despitetheirphenotypicresemblance(Omoto,1984;Hanihara,1989c,
1990a,b,c,1991a,b,c,1992a,b,c,d).Ihavepointedoutthattheoriginaldental
traitsoftheSoutheastAsiansmayhaveoccurredastheresultofconvergentmicroevolutionunderasimilarenvironmentalcondition,suchasthetropicalrainforest,basedondiachroniccomparison(Hanihara,1992a,b,c,d).Itisprobable,
therefore,thattheformationofNegrito-likefeaturesmayhaveoccurredinthis
kindofenvironmentalconditionatasufficienttime-depth,say,20,000yearsorso.
ThepresentfindingsindicatethatthedentaltraitsofPolynesiansandMicronesiansaremorelikethoseofSoutheastAsianswithlesseradmixtureoftheEast
Asianinvaders(probablysouthernChinese),orNegrito-likegeneralizedAsian
populations,thanthoseoftheJomoneseandtheirlineages.Theresultsdonot
favor,therefore,theprehistoricJomoneseasthemostlikelyracialsourceandthe
NanseiIslandchainasthegeographicalrouteforthepeoplingofMicronesiaand
PolynesiaproposedbyBraceandhiscolleagues(Brace,etal.,1989,1990;Brace
andHunt,1990),andKatayama(1990).Thefindingspresentedhereareconsistent
withthosereportedbyTurner(1987,1989,1990a,b),Pietrusewsky(1988,1990a,
76TsunehikoHanihara
b),Howells(1990),etc.AlllinesofevidenceobtainedindicatethatthePolynesians,Micronesians,andJomoneseshareacommongenepoolwhichcanbetraced
backtoSoutheastAsians,mostlikely,fromdentalmorphologicalviewpoints,the
generalizedAsianpopulations.ThisfindingsupportsTurner'sdentalhypothesis
statingthatthesundadontancestoroftheJomonesecouldhavearrivedfrom
SoutheastAsia,orSundaland,viathenow-submergedEastAsiancontinentalshelf
intheLatePleistoceneandEarlyHolocenetimes,andcouldhavecolonizedthe
PacificBasinintheLateHolocenetimes(Turner,1987,1989,1990a,b).
ItislikelythatagroupofAustronesians,themakersofLapitapottery,whohad
moreSoutheastAsiandentalcharactersthantheirpredecessorsandwereadeptat
canoeconstructionandnavigationaregoodcandidatesforthepioneercolonistof
thePacificBasinandRim.Inaddition,itshouldbekeptinmindthatthereisno
evidenceofsailingtechniqueintheJomonageofJapan.
SUMMARYANDCONCLUSIONS
Thefollowingaretheprincipalconclusionstobedrawnfromthepresentstudy:
(1)DentalfeaturesarerelativelyhomogeneouswithintheseveralPolynesian
populations.
(2)WesternPolynesiamayhavebeenfirstsettledbypeoplewithdentalaffinitieswiththeindigenousSoutheastAsians.
(3)TheTongansarecloselyrelatedtotheMarquesans,suggestingthefirstsettlementoftheMarquesasIslandsineasternPolynesiafromwesternPolynesia,
Tonga-Samoa.
(4)Dentalevidenceprovidedheredoesnotnecessarilyprovidefurthersupport
fortheorderedstageofcolonizationwithinthePolynesianregionproposedby
Sinoto(1968)andJennings(1979).
(5)MicronesiandentitionismostlikethatofthePolynesiansandsomeSoutheastAsians.
(6)TheassociationofMarianaIslanders(GuamaniansandTinianislanders)
withislandSoutheastAsians,andPonapeanswithPolynesiansindicatesthewestnucleardichotomywithinMicronesia.
(7)ThepresentfindingsdonotfavortheprehistoricJomoneseasthemostlikely
sourceforthepresentpeopleinPolynesiaandMicronesia.
(8)TheJomonesemaybelinkedwiththePolynesiansandMicronesiansthrough
acommongenepoolderivedfromsomewhereinSoutheastAsia.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
IwishtoexpressmysinceregratitudetoProfessorC.G.Turner,Departmentof
Anthropology,ArizonaStateUniversity;ProfessorY.Dodo,DepartmentofAnatomy,SapporoMedicalCollege;ProfessorK.Hanihara,InternationalResearch
AffinitiesamongPolynesiansandCircum-Polynesians77
CenterforJapaneseStudies;fortheirconstantencouragement,invaluablesupport,
criticaladvice,andhelpfulremarksonthispaper.
IamdeeplyindebtedtoProfessorW.D.Duckworth,Director,ProfessorY.H.
Sinoto,DepartmentofAnthropology,BerniceP.BishopMuseum,Honolulu;ProfessorM.Pietrusewsky,DepartmentofAnthropology,UniversityofHawaiiat
Manoa;ProfessorK.OmotoandProfessorB.Endo,DepartmentofAnthropology,FacultyofScience,theUniversityofTokyo;ProfessorY.DodoandProfessor
H.Ishida,DepartmentofAnatomy,SapporoMedicalCollege;Dr.T.Nakahashi,
Dr.N.Doi,andProfessorY.Shibata,DepartmentofAnatomy,FacultyofMedicine,KyushuUniversity;fortheirkindpermissiontoexaminethematerialsunder
theircare.
ThisstudywassupportedbyGrant-in-AidforInternationalScientificResearch,
"AnthropologicalStudiesontheOriginofthePacificPopulations"fromthe
MinistryofEducation,ScienceandCultureinJapan.TheheadinvestigatorisProfessorK.Hanihara.ThisresearchwasalsofinanciallysupportedbyGrant-in-Aid
forScientificResearchNos.01740483,02740412,02225213,03740424,03209210,
andInternationalScientificResearch,"ThePopulationGeneticSurveyofNegritos"headedbyProfessorK.OmotofromtheJapaneseMinistryofEducation,ScienceandCulture.
ThisiscontributionNo.6tomy"ThebasicpopulationsinEastAsia"series.
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82TsunehikoHanihara
ポ リネ シ ア 諸 集 団 の歯 冠 形 質 に つ い て
埴原
要 旨:ポ
恒彦
リ ネ シ ア人 の 起 源 と拡 散 過 程 に つ い て は考 古 学 、言 語 学 、形 質 人 類 学 等 の研 究 領 域
か ら様 々 な仮 説 が 提 唱 され て い る 。 しか しこれ らの研 究 結 果 は必 ず し も一 致 してお らず 、 多
角 的 な 研 究 結 果 の 統 合 が 不 可 欠 で あ る。 「太 平 洋 民 族 の 起 源 に関 す る人 類 学 的研 究 」 班 で は
頭 骨 、 四 肢 骨 、 古 病 理 、 歯 の研 究 か らポ リネ シ ア集 団 を は じめ とす る太 平 洋 地 域 諸 集 団 の 形
質 的特 徴 を比 較 検 討 して きた が 、 こ こで は太平 洋民 族 の歯 冠 形 態 を 明 らか にす る と共 に歯 の
形 態 か らみ た 彼 らの 起 源 と系 統 を検 討 した。
ポ リネ シ ア6集 団 、 ミク ロネ シ ア3集 団 、 メ ラネ シ ア1集 団 、東 ア ジ ア7集 団、 東 南 ア ジ
ア4集 団 の 計21集 団 を比 較対 象 と し、 歯 冠計 測値 お よび 非計 測 的歯 冠 形 質 の デ ー タ を多 変 量
解 析 法 に よ り分 析 した 。 詳細 は 本文 に 記 載 した 通 りで あ る が 、歯 冠 形 質 につ いて は次 の よ う
な結 果 が 得 られ た 。
(1)ポ
リ ネ シ ア諸 集 団 の歯 冠 形 態 は比 較 的 均 質 で あ る。
(2)ポ
リ ネ シア 諸 集 団 は ミク ロ ネ シ ア集 団 、 東 南 ア ジ ア集 団 に類 似 した歯 冠 形 質 を示 す 。
(3)西
ポ リネ シ ア地 域 集 団 一 トンガ ・サ モ ア集 団 一が ポ リネ シ ア諸 集 団 中 もっ と も東 南 ア
ジ ア集 団 に類 似 す る。 この こ とは東 南 ア ジ ア 集 団 と類 似 した形 質 的特 徴 を もつ 集 団 が 、 西 ポ
リネ シ ア 地 域 に最 初 に移 住 した とす る従 来 の主 張 と矛 盾 す る もの で は な い。
(4)東
ポ リネ シ ア集 団 の な か で は マ ル ケ サ ス諸 島集 団が トンガ集 団 と最 も類 似 性 を示 す 。
この結 果 は、 東 ポ リネ シ ア地域 へ の 移動 の 過 程 で マ ル ケ サ ス諸 島が 最 も初 期 の居 住 地 で あ っ
た とす る 考 古 学 的仮 説 と一致 す る。
(5)マ
ル ケ サ ス 諸 島 が ポ リネ シ ア 地域 に お い て最 初 の拡 散 中心 とな り、 ソサ イ ア テ ィー諸
島 が 第2の 拡 散 中心 とな った とす る 考古 学 的 、言 語 学 的仮 説 と歯 冠 形 質 に基 づ く分 析 結 果 と
は必 ず し も平 行 す る もの で は な い。
(6)ミ
ク ロ ネ シ ア集 団 はポ リネ シ ア集 団 お よ び東 南 ア ジ ア集 団 に類 似 した 歯 冠 形 態 を も
(7)ミ
ク ロ ネ シ ア集 団 中 で は マ リア ナ 諸 島 集 団 が よ り東南 ア ジ ア集 団 に類 似 し、 ポ ナペ ー
つo
トラ ック 諸 島 集 団 はポ リネ シ ア 集 団 に比 較 的 類似 す る 。 こ の こ とは多 くの研 究 者 が 指 摘 す る
よ うに ミ ク ロ ネ シア が ポ リネ シ ア よ り も複 雑 な民 族 史 を示 す こ と を示 唆 す る。
(8)ポ
リネ シ ア集 団 、 ミクロ ネ シ ア集 団 の 歯冠 形 質 は縄 文 人 よ りも東 南 ア ジ ア集 団 に類 似
性 を示 し、 太 平 洋 民族 の縄 文 人起 源 説 に 関 して は否 定 的 で あ る。
(9)縄
文 人 と太 平 洋 民 族(ポ
リネ シ ア、 ミクロ ネ シ ア集 団)の 類 似 性 は東 南 ア ジ ア を介 し
て 共通 の 祖 先 を もつ こ とに よる と考 え られ る。
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