日本研究演習(英語)A
Chris Burgess (1号館1308研究室、内線164)
[email protected] ・http://edu.tsuda.ac.jp/~cburgess
The Value of Debating
• understanding that there are two (or more)
sides to every issue is useful
• taking an opposite position to your idea/
opinion can be a great learning experience
– also helps you to avoid ‘I think’
• noticing importance of comparing with
other countries is valuable
This is a good chance for realising the
difference between a 作文 & a レポート
2年生向け基本的学習スキル
• 1.高校の「作文」や受験時の「小論文」などのような、
単に感想を述べたものと、大学の「レポート」(学術論
文の体裁を整えたもの)の違いが分かること
– 感想文は心に浮んだ思いや感じを述べる文章であ
る。自分の意見・考えが中心となり、それを述べる
ための論拠は必ずしも示さなくてもよい。
– 学術論文は対立する複数の立場間で議論を展開
する文章である。他者の論証を分析し、バランスの
取れた批判的思考に基づいて自分自身の評価を
示す、自分の主張には必ず論拠を明らかにするこ
とが必要になる。
Group Debate Proposals (論題)
a) Japan should recognise dual nationality
(日本は二重国籍を認めるべきである)
•
Group 1 for (肯定側)/ Group 2 against (否定側)
b) Permanent residents should be given voting and employment
rights (永住外国人に参政権と公務員管理職権を与えるべきである)
•
Group 3 for / Group 4 against
c) Alien (resident) cards are not necessary for permanent
residents(永住外国人に外国人登録証明書[在留カード] は必要な
い)
Group 5 for / Group 6 against
d) Compensation should be given to ‘sex-slaves’ and ‘slavelabourers’ (従軍慰安婦と強制労働者に賠償すべきである)
•
Group 7 for / Group 8 against
e) All foreign entrants should be photographed and fingerprinted
(全ての外国人入国者に指紋押捺・撮影を課すべきである)
•
Group 9 for / Group 10 against
DEBATE (1) (日本は二重国籍を認める
•
べきである)
Dual Nationality
– Japan does not officially recognise dual
nationality so:
(a) someone who becomes a citizen of another
country must, in theory, surrender their
Japanese citizenship (but…)
(b) a child with dual nationality must choose one
or the other before age 22 by submitting a
日本国籍の選択宣言 (but…)
Key Issues
• Security・ “Loyalty” (patrotism)
– Public interest/national security
• Taxation
– “No Taxation without Representation” (代表な
くして課税なし)
• Conscription (徴兵)
• Travel
• Global Human Resources (グローバル人材
/brain-drain)
二重国籍容認の私案提示 自民
PT (2008.11.11)
自民党法務部会の国籍問題プロジェクトチー
ム(PT)は11日午前、党本部で会合を開き、座
長の河野太郎衆院議員が二重国籍を認める国
籍法改正の私案を提示した。私案をたたき台に
有識者などから意見を聞いた上で、年内をめど
に改正案要綱を取りまとめる。。。
二重国籍容認の私案提示 自民
PT (2008.11.11)
。。。先月、ノーベル物理学賞
を受賞した南部陽一郎米シカ
ゴ大名誉教授が米国籍を取
得し日本国籍を喪失していた
ことを受け、PTでは「正直者
と有名人がバカを見る制度
だ」(河野氏)として二重国籍
容認への動きが加速した。
Burgess Zemi 2009 Graudation Thesis: 正直者と有名人がバカを見る日本の国籍制度:
二重国籍へと改正される可能性があるか (available on campus only HERE)
2013年5月28日 日本経済新聞
2013年5月28日 日本経済新聞
Countries allowing dual citizenship
• Armenia, Austria, Australia, Bangladesh,
Belgium, Belize, Brazil,
Canada, Colombia,
Korea
Cyprus, Dominica, Egypt, El Salvador, Finland,
• Revised
Nationality Law (2011) allowed
France, Germany, Grenada, Hungary, Iceland,
Koreans
residing
overseas,
talented
foreign
Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jordan, Latvia,
nationals,
foreign
residentsMalta,
married
to
Lebanon,and
Lithuania,
Macedonia,
Mexico,
Koreans
to hold
dual
citizenship
under certain
Montenegro,
New
Zealand,
Pakistan,
Philippines, Russia, Serbia, South Africa, Spain
conditions
(only in certain
cases), aSribrain
Lanka,
St. Kitts
& in
• Designed
to prevent
drain,
bring
Nevis, Sweden,
Switzerland,
UK, birthrate
US,
talented
foreigners,
and fightSyria,
the low
Vietnam and Western Samoa
http://www.ehow.com/list_7371981_list-dual-citizenship-countries.html
DEBATE (2) (永住外国人に投票権と公
務員管理職権を与えるべきである)
• Voting rights high on political agenda…
– Providing voting rights to foreign residents is
not prohibited by the constitution: a new law
is all that is required
– In fact, many local governments already allow
Permanent Residents to vote in local
plebiscites; places like Kawasaki and
Hamamatsu have already established foreign
residents’ assemblies.
Voting Rights for Foreign Residents
in Local Elections
(地方外国人参政権 )
• February 1995: Supreme Court ruled that providing
voting rights to foreign residents not prohibited by the
constitution
• Post 1995: Many local governments extend suffrage to
Permanent Residents in local plebiscites
• South Korean government has consistently pushed
Japan on this issue
• Numerous bills have been presented to the Diet since
1995; all have failed due to ‘lack of time’
2004年11月
(社説)
Yomiuri Shimbun Editorials
(2004/11/17) & (2008/2/23)
• 「法案も審議も筋が通らない」
“Suffrage for foreigners
insufferable nonsense”
• ‘National security at risk’
• ‘Foreign subversion a threat’
“Suffrage
for
Foreigners
could court
trouble”
(Yomiuri
Shimbun
2009/10/10)
DPJ Suggests Giving Foreigners
Voting Rights (外国人参政権)
• DPJ has repeatedly
submitted bills to Diet
to give permanent
residents the right to
vote in local elections
• Hatoyama promised S.
Korean president he
would give serious
consideration to issue
しょゆうぶつ
「日本列島は日本人だけの所有物
じゃない」 鳩山兄発言“炎上”
(えんじょう)
The voting issue (and dual
• 2009年4月22日(水)08:05
nationality too) is closely linked to
• 民主党の鳩山由紀夫幹事長が、インターネッ
the
image
of
“Homogenous
Japan”
トの動画サイト「ニコニコ動画」に出演し、永住
(単一民族)
外国人への地方参政権付与が必要だとの認
識を示した上で、「日本列島は日本人だけの
所有物じゃない」と発言したことが、インター
ネット掲示板などで“騒動”となっている。
そうどう=uproar/commotion
April 2010
Yomiuri Shimbun 2010/1/14 p. 13
DEBATE (3) (永住外国人に外国人登録
証明書[在留カード] は必要ない)
• Arguing that these cards are “convenient”
for foreigners is not the same thing as
arguing that they are “necessary”…
• On the other hand, critics argue that they
go beyond what is “necessary” to control
foreign residents
– Human rights concerns raised (e.g. see )
http://www.immi-moj.go.jp/newimmiact_1/
DEBATE (4) (従軍慰安婦と強制労働者
に賠償すべきである)
• Lack of (comfort women) evidence?
– Although there is a lack of official
documentation (destroyed at the end of WW2),
some evidence has been uncovered…
X
1983 (Yoshida)
1992 (2001) Yoshimi
1993 「河野談話」
(Kono apology)
慰安婦の強制性示す資料を公表
関東学院大教授
日本軍慰安婦問題をめぐって林博史(Hirofumi
Hayashi)関東学院大教授は17日、東京・有楽町の
日本外国特派員協会で記者会見し、東京裁判に出さ
れたオランダや中国など検察団の証拠資料のうち、日
本軍が占領地の女性を強制的に慰安婦にしたことを
示す尋問調書の概要を公表した。
林教授は「東京裁判でも慰安婦強制の事実は確認
されている。90年代に資料研究が進み、慰安婦は性
奴隷だと確信していたが、最近これを公然と否定する
動きが安倍政権から出てきた。資料を示して再確認す
る必要を感じた」と説明した。
朝日新聞 2007年04月18日
Compensation (賠償)
• 1951 San Francisco Peace Treaty (日本国との平和
条約) explicitly renounced claims by individuals
(regarding war damage)
• Korea renounced claims for war compensation in
1965 treaty which included lump-sum payments for
colonial and wartime atrocities (although ambiguity
remained with regard to claims by individuals)
• 1995: J. government set up private "Asia Women's
Fund" (アジア女性基金)to provide material
compensation (and signed apology from PM)
DEBATE (5) (All foreign entrants
should be photographed and fingerprinted
(全ての外国人入国者に指紋押捺・撮影を課
すべきである)
Tighter Border Security Controls: A Global Trend
• In the US, digital fingerprinting & photographs
have been required for most foreign nationals
since 2004 (but not green-card holders)
• Malaysia, Korea, Afghanistan and Thailand also
use fingerprinting and face scanning for new
arrivals.
• The EU, Australia, & New Zealand are now trialing
such programmes for selected countries….
理論的根拠
The Rationale…
• “In order to avoid the entry of terrorists into
Japan, it has been decided to impose
fingerprinting and photography at
immigration.” (Nov. 2007, Foreign Ministry)
• The US/EU have valid reasons for being
afraid of foreign terrorism…but Japan?
– In Japan, all incidents of terrorism to date
have been domestic (such as the 1995 Sarin
gas attack & right-wing bombings)…
– Tighter border control deter “good” migrants?
NEWCOMERS
‘Oldcomers’ vs. ‘Newcomers’
• Most ‘oldcomers’ neither old nor did they
come from anywhere
• Many ‘newcomers’ are not new, but have
been settled in Japan for 20 or 30 years
• カタカナ labels tend to emphasise foreignness and create distance
Newcomers
1970’s
Indo-Chinese Refugees
Late 70’s Female ‘entertainers’ from Asia
-1986
Mid 80’s+ Migrant Workers from South & SE
Asia, China, Korea, and Iran
1990
Nikkeijin from Brazil
「移民」と呼ばれていない。。。
1970’s
Late 70’s
-1986
難民
Is gai(koku)jin
アジアから来た 「興行」
an exclusionary
or even racist
label?
Mid 80’s+
外国人労働者
1990
帰国者・日系人
DATA
Celebrating 'Multicultural Japan‘:
Writings on 'Minorities' and the
Discourse on 'Difference‘
See Table 2
http://www.japanesestudies.org.uk/articles/2008/Burgess.html
Japanese & Foreign Population (1979-2009)
1.55% (2005) 2.01 million
1.63% (2006) 2.08 million
1.69% (2007) 2.15 million
1.70% (2008) 2.2 million
2009: First Fall since 1961!
1.6% (2012) 2.03 million
=2009
(mainly Korean oldcomers)
(=newcomers)
(newcomers)
(2012)
Special
PR (oldcomers)
Trainee
spouse
Long term
resident
Foreign
Student
General
PR
(newcomers)
Registered Foreigners in Japan by Nationality
(1986-2012)
Registered Foreigners in Japan by Nationality
(1986-2012)
• 外国人労働者問題
1980s
• Longer stays
1990s
• Steady Family Formation
• Putting down roots in communities
• Residency (居住) ・ Settlement (定住)
No. of Marriages (婚姻件数)
こん
いん
図4 婚姻件数及び婚姻率の年次推移
万組
120
2011
昭和47年
最高の婚姻件数
1 099 984組
昭和22年
最高の婚姻率
18
平成23年推計数
670 000 組
100
婚
1972
14
80
12
姻
10
60
1987
件
数
16
40
8
昭和22年
12.0
6
4
平成23年
推計値 5.3
20
2
0
0
22 ・
昭和・・年
30
・
40
・
50
・
60
2
平成・年
7
・
17
婚
姻
率
(
人
口
千
対
)
23
婚姻件数
婚姻 率
No. of International Marriages
45000
41000 40272
40000
36263
35000
34000
30,207
30000
25626
25000
20000
1 in 200
15000
10000
5000
7261
1 in 17
1 in 23
(5.8%)
2006 Peak
(4.3%)
0
1980 1990 2000 2005 2007 2009 2010
Are national cultural differences
really the most important?
What is an ‘international marriage’?
• Marriage of a Japanese and a non-Japanese
– Including Koreans born and brought up in Japan
• ‘Original’ Japanese concept
– Concept ‘made in Japan’ in 2nd half of 19C
– Used to give Japanese nationality
to non-Jap. & ‘build the nation’
through marriage to whites!
Who Marries Japanese?
• 4 out of 5 international marriages
involve a foreign wife (妻外国人)
Others
Thailand
Korea
15,442
China
Philippines
2013
2001
POST-WAR HISTORY
• Started off as a local government initiative
in Yamagata in 1985 (rural depopulation)
過疎化
• Companies (業者) gradually took over as
kokusai kekkon boom took off
• Today there are thousands of agencies…
PROBLEMS
• Human Rights Abuses (人権侵害)
• Commodification (商品化)
• Human Trafficking (人身売買)
• Baby Machines?
My Research
"Paradoxically, the bride
importing project, aimed at
conserving the structure of
Japanese society, will
potentially have the effect of
drastically altering it.”
Nakamura (88:31)
WHY YAMAGATA?
1) High percentage of newcomers who
marry and settle (定住) locally
2) Well-developed support organisations
3) Rapid pace of change
• uchinaru kokusaika
(“grassroots internationalisation”)
MY PhD THESIS
• How do newcomers navigate, negotiate, and
(re)construct their identities?
• Are they ready to be social agents? How are
they able to exercise agency?
• How might their actions challenge
stereotypes of ‘Japanese’ and ‘foreigner’,
especially notions of Japanese identity as
homogenous?
SAMPLE
• 17 women (15 married to Japanese) from
Korea, China, Philippines, Brazil
• Interviews took place between Sept. 2001
and March 2002
• Recruited through local NGO and
International Association
JAPANESE SUMMARY
博士論文の主なテーマは、現代日本
における変革の可能性である。日本
は転換期に入っているという点で議論
する。日本にいる永住移民がこの変
革をもたらしているという視点から究
明するものである。この人達の日常生
活での言動が日本の社会の変革に大
変影響を与えており、日本の今後の
発達と親密なつながりを持つ。
ツヨシ君に伝えたい~フィリ
ピン花嫁たちは今
1995年5月
日本研究演習(英語)A
Chris Burgess (1号館1308研究室、内線164)
[email protected] ・http://edu.tsuda.ac.jp/~cburgess
FINDINGS
• Newcomers constantly reconstruct their
personal sense of national identity
• Newcomers also adapt to local norms
• Newcomers are very self-aware about
identity construction
• Social capital, not ‘resistance’, is important
• Japan may be approaching a ‘critical mass’
in terms of Japanese identity being
transformed from within
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日本研究演習(英語)A