Artificial Intelligence
What is AI?
• Turing’s definition
• Are we there yet?
• Eliza (the original)
• Alice
• Joan
Our Working Definition of AI
Artificial intelligence is the study of how to make
computers do things that people are better at or would be
better at if:
• they could extend what they do to a World Wide
Web-sized amount of data, and
• not make mistakes.
A Time Line
View the time line
The Origins of AI Hype
1950 Turing predicted that in about fifty years "an
average interrogator will not have more than a 70
percent chance of making the right identification after five
minutes of questioning".
1957 Newell and Simon predicted that "Within ten
years a computer will be the world's chess champion,
unless the rules bar it from competition."
The Key Components
• Perception
• Knowledge
• Reasoning
• Language
• Moving around
Image Perception
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Image Perception
Image Perception
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t2fjcmPII30&feature=related
http://www.pcworld.com/article/224007/google_wont_release_awesome_facial_reco
gnition_app.html
But We’re Still Ahead
http://www.captcha.net/
But What About Knowledge?
• Why do we need it?
Find me stuff about dogs who save people’s lives.
• How can we represent it and use it?
• How can we acquire it?
But What About Knowledge?
• Why do we need it?
Find me stuff about dogs who save people’s lives.
Two beagles spot a fire.
Their barking alerts
neighbors, who call 911.
• How can we represent it and use it?
• How can we acquire it?
Even Children Know a Lot
A story described in Charniak (1972):
Jane was invited to Jack’s birthday party. She wondered if
he would like a kite. She went into her room and shook her
piggy bank. It made no sound.
Concepts
Can Computers Learn Concepts?
Start with telling the computer that “pie” is a baked good.
Now scan the internet to acquire the concept “baked
goods”:
•
•
•
•
•
Bake the pie for an hour.
Bake cookies at 350 for 14 minutes.
Bake the cake at 350 until a toothpick comes out clean.
Chocolate cake is usually the favorite.
Oatmeal cookies freeze well.
A good notion of
“baked goods”
Can Computers Learn Concepts?
Start with telling the computer that “pie” is a baked good.
Now scan the internet to acquire the concept “baked
goods”:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Bake the pie for an hour.
Bake cookies at 350 for 14 minutes.
Bake the cake at 350 until a toothpick comes out clean.
Chocolate cake is usually the favorite.
Oatmeal cookies freeze well.
I don’t want any Internet cookies.
Can Computers Learn Concepts?
Start with telling the computer that “pie” is a baked good.
Now scan the internet to acquire the concept “baked
goods”:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Bake the pie for an hour.
Bake cookies at 350 for 14 minutes.
Bake the cake at 350 until a toothpick comes out clean.
Chocolate cake is usually the favorite.
Oatmeal cookies freeze well.
I don’t want any Internet cookies.
I deleted all my Internet cookies.
Can Computers Learn Concepts?
Start with telling the computer that “pie” is a baked good.
Now scan the internet to acquire the concept “baked
goods”:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Bake the pie for an hour.
Bake cookies at 350 for 14 minutes.
Bake the cake at 350 until a toothpick comes out clean.
Chocolate cake is usually the favorite.
Oatmeal cookies freeze well.
I don’t want any Internet cookies.
I deleted all my Internet cookies.
I deleted all my files.
Further Complications from How
Language is Used
• After the strike, the president sent them away.
• After the strike, the umpire sent them away.
The word “strike” refers to two different concepts.
When Other Words in Context Aren’t
Enough
• I need a new bonnet.
• The senator moved to table the bill.
Language Processing Today
• Newsblaster
• Watson
What Can Machines Do Today?
IBM’s site: http://www-03.ibm.com/innovation/us/watson/what-is-watson/index.html
Introduction: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FC3IryWr4c8
Watch a sample round: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WFR3lOm_xhE
From Day 1 of the real match: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=seNkjYyG3gI
Bad Final Jeopardy: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mwkoabTl3vM&feature=relmfu
How does Watson win? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d_yXV22O6n4
Machine Translation
The estimated death toll from Japan's disasters climbed past 10,000 Sunday as
authorities raced to combat the threat of multiple nuclear reactor meltdowns and
hundreds of thousands of people struggled to find food and water. The prime
minister said it was the nation's worst crisis since World War II.
El número de muertos por los desastres de Japón subió últimos 10.000 el
domingo como las autoridades se apresuraron a combatir la amenaza de
múltiples fusiones de reactores nucleares y cientos de miles de personas
lucharon para encontrar comida y agua. El primer ministro dijo que era
peor crisis del país desde la Segunda Guerra Mundial.
The death toll from Japan's disaster climbed past 10,000 on Sunday as
authorities scrambled to combat the threat of multiple mergers of nuclear
reactors and hundreds of thousands of people struggled to find food and water.
The prime minister said it was worse crisis in the country since the Second
World War.
Machine Translation
The estimated death toll from Japan's disasters climbed past 10,000 Sunday as
authorities raced to combat the threat of multiple nuclear reactor meltdowns and
hundreds of thousands of people struggled to find food and water. The prime
minister said it was the nation's worst crisis since World War II.
当局は、複数の原 子炉のメルトダウンと食料と水を見つけるのに苦労何十万
もの人々の脅威と戦うためにレースと しての日本の災害からの推定死亡者数
は過去1万日 曜日に登った。首相は、第二次世界大戦以来、国 家の最悪の危
機であると言いました。
Officials estimated the death toll from the disaster of Japan as a race to combat
the threat of hundreds of thousands of people struggling to find food and water
to more than one nuclear reactor meltdown Sunday climbed past 10,000 . The
prime minister since World War II, said the nation's worst crisis.
TranslationParty
A federal appeals court ruled on Tuesday that regulators had limited power
over Web traffic under current law. The decision will allow Internet service
companies to block or slow specific sites and charge video sites like YouTube
to deliver their content faster to users.
連邦控訴裁判所は27日、規制当局は、Webトラフィッ ク過電流法の下で限ら
れた力を持って判決を下した。決定インターネットサービス会社がブロック
する、または特定のサイトやYouTubeのような無料動画 サイトを遅らせる
fasterユーザーにコンテンツを提供するようになります。
A federal appeals court on April 27, regulators, Web has ruled under a limited
power over current traffic laws. The decision to block Internet services
company, or specific sites and free video sites like YouTube to delay the faster
will now provide content to the user.
April 27, regulators, Web, has limited power under the control of traffic control
in the current federal appeals court. Decisions, Internet, and a specific site or
YouTube, the delay can be blocked immediately Bideokontentsusaito as the
current user is free.
http://translationparty.com/
Language Requires Knowledge
Headlines
Beijing Stops Construction for Olympics
Language Requires Knowledge
Headlines
Beijing Stops Construction for Olympics
Hospital Pays $100,000 to Overdose Victim’s Family
Language Requires Knowledge
Headlines
Beijing Stops Construction for Olympics
Hospital Pays $100,000 to Overdose Victim’s Family
TV ads boost eating of obese children.
Expert Systems
Expert Systems - Medicine
Example problems:
• arrhythmia recognition from electrocardiograms
• coronary heart disease risk group detection
• monitoring the prescription of restricted use antibiotics
• early melanoma diagnosis
• gene expression data analysis of human lymphoma
• breast cancer diagnosis
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