「バリアフリーのための心理学」(11/10)
資料
(5)ケータイで居所報告
望月昭 [email protected]
HP: http//www.ritsumei.ac.jp/~mochi/
ブログ:
http://d.hatena.ne.jp/marumo55/
1
Don’t forget this paradigm !
携帯が認められたら
携帯電話?
2
• 「着信に気づく」:その改善について、行動
分析学的な観点から説明せよ!
① 「見本刺激」
(メール)
② 「選択刺激」(実物)
着信信号
開
封
りんご
選
択
強化
3
気づく・見るも行動のうち
行動ユニット1
• 着信刺激(弁別刺激)
開封行動(反応)
行動ユニット2
• 言語刺激(強化)
条件刺激
選択刺激
弁別刺激
選択
強化
反応 強化
ユニット1,2を維持するのは、この
4
強化
居所報告
• 携帯電話系の研究では定番です。
モバイル性、
地域での自立(safty)
●Taber, T.A.,Alberto,P.A.,Hughes,M., and
Seltzer, A. (2002) A strategy for students with
moderate disabilities when lost in the
community. Research and Practice for Person
with Severe Disabilities, 27, 141-152.
5
今回紹介する2つの研究
①濃添晋矢・南美知代・望月昭(2003) 聴覚障害と知
的障害がある生徒における携帯メールの使用―鉄道
駅における「駅名報告行動」獲得の検討―.日本特
殊教育学会第41回大会発表論文集, P576.
② Lu & Mochizuki(2005); Training and
functional use of the picture function of cell
phone in a Deaf person with mental
disability. 3rd International ABA Conference
(in Beijing)
6
• 鉄道駅における「駅名報告行動」獲得の検討―
○濃添晋矢・南 美知代・望月 昭
参加者:聴覚障害と知的障害がある男子生徒U君(ろう学校高
等部2年)
平日はろう学校の寄宿舎で生活し、週末に家族の付き添いでバ
スと電車で帰宅していた。
最低可聴閾は左右とも129db、IQ56(コース立方体組み合わせ
テスト)であった。
携帯メールについては、メールで注文を受けた品物を持ち帰る
「要求充足」の訓練を受けており、日常生活においては食事の内
容の報告など簡単な用途での使用が見られ、受信・送信操作は
可能であったが、自分の居場所を報告することはなかった。
7
セッションの概要:3つの部分から構成
●訓練1;通学に使用する3駅で駅名報告訓練
が行われ、「未知駅プローブ」ではU君が行っ
たことのない駅でも駅名報告が可能になった
かどうかが調べられた。
●訓練2:新たに「駅名の看板を探す」という行
動ステップが加えられて訓練が行われ、再びU
君が行ったことのない駅でも駅名報告が可能
かどうか調べられた。○訓練2では、駅前広場
においても報告が可能かどうかも調べられた。
8
表1:訓練1の結果
A
4
3
2
1
行
動
ス
テ
ッ
プ
4
3
2
1
4
3
2
1
文
M
B
文
M
A
B
文
M
T駅
※
※
※
※
※
※
文
M
A駅
※
※
※
※
※
※
※
I駅
※
5
※
※
※
※
※
※
1
2
3
4
6
7
8
9
#
#
#
セッション
:誤反応
:正反応
※:母親からのメールがなかったので省略
:訓練条件の試行 それ以外はベースライン条件
文 :文字カード提示
M :モデリング
A:「いまどこにいますか」メールあり
B:「いまどこにいますか」メールなし
9
表2:訓練2の結果
1
2
3
4
5
駅 A AS S R SNMO K H MI AG AKSO O TU A
メール着信後電話を取り出す
メール作成画面まで操作する無
駅名看板の下まで移動する 無
※※※※※※
※※
※
※
駅名を入力する
無
メール送信操作をする
無
:正反応
:プロンプトあり 無 :無反応
※ :駅名看板参照せず駅名をメール画面に入力
10
濃添論文まとめ
• 「駅名報告」という具体的目標によって、
聴き手に対する報告内容を限定した。
• 駅にいるとき、あるいは近くにいるときには
最寄の駅名を送信することができた。
(3つの駅を訓練した後、新奇の駅で般化)
11
Training and functional use of
the picture function of cell phone
in a Deaf person with mental
disability
Presented at the 3rd International ABA Conference
in Beijing. (2005)
Jingye Lu & Akira Mochizuki
Ritsumeikan Universiy (Kyoto, Japan)
12
Research on the functional use of the
personal information device in the
person with disability
In these years, the study about the functional
use of personal informational devices, i.e., cell
phone, pager, and PDA, have been conducted for
the independent community living of the person
with disability. Taber (Taber, et al., 2002) taught
middle school students to identify when they were
lost and use oral and auditory mode of cell phone
for assistance. Taylor (Talor, et al, 2004) taught
teenagers with autism to respond to a vibrating
pager to seek assistance in community .
13
Research on the use of mail function
of cell phone
For the person who can’t use oral nor auditory mode of
communication, Nozoe (Nozoe, et al., 2004) researched a
training program of functional use of the (word) mail
function of cell phone, in which a Deaf student with mental
disability was taught to buy the objects in community store
requested by the listener through the word mail. After this
training, Nozoe (Nozoe, et al., 2004) conducted the
experiment in which the participant sent the name of
railway station as a reply to the request of the place where
the participant was.
Then, what can we do for the person who can’t use cell
phone through aural nor writing (word mail) mode ? 14
Experiment I:
Functional use of the still picture
mail of cell phone
In Experiment I, we researched the
functional use of still picture mail of cell
phone in a Deaf student with mental disability
for reporting:
1) the place where he was
and
2) the name of the person who with him
to the listener who asked him the questions
through the word mail.
15
Behavior goals:
1) When the participant gets the mail , “What can you
see ?”, reply to it, i.e., take a picture of “landmark”
of the place and send it to the listener.
2) When he gets the mail, ”Who is with you?”,
reply to it, i.e., take a picture of the person with him
and send it to the listener.
3) In the tasks above, if the name of place or person is
“Known one (he can write it )”, send the word-mail to
the listener.
16
Method
• Participant : A Deaf high school student with
moderately mental disability, whose first language
was Japanese manual sign and had limited
repertoires of writing words.
• Experimenter: Graduate and under graduate
students of Behavior Analysis class.
• Cell phone : J-PHONE J-T51, J-SH52.
• Setting: Simulation training was conducted in a
class room containing video recording equipment.
Pre and Post tests were conducted in the campus
of college and community setting.
17
Procedures
• General training method: Prompting and its fading to
behavior steps under the total task presentation method
following task-analysis table. (see Task analysis table )
• Training of differential response to “known objects”
and “unknown objects” :
Participant was required to take a picture of an object
presented on a table and send the picture to experimenter
if the object was “unknown object” , or to send wordmail if the object was “known one” after receiving the
mail “What can you see?” from the experimenter in faceto-face setting.
In this training, the operation of cell phone ( reply
mail ) was taught to the participant by the experimenter.
18
Training of the sending reply-mail
containing the place and person in a
simulation setting
In the simulation setting ( in 8 settings in college ),
participant was taught to send the name of the place if
it was known or to take a picture of “landmark” of the
place when participant got the word mail “What can
you see ?” from listener. In same training sessions, the
training of sending the name or picture of the person
who accompanied with the participant.
When participant sent the proper picture or name,
the listener sent back the mail, “OK, I see. Thank you”
19
by word mail.
Task-analysis table of the operation of
cell phone for replying to the question:
• On arrival of a message (vibration, rings, and light) from
listener: Take out the cell phone from pocket of jacket.
• Open the cell phone
• Open the mail box
• Select the new mail received in the mail box
• Keep the mail page over five seconds
• Move the reply mail screen.
• Select and push the reply switch
• Write the name of place or person if the object was
“known”
Take a picture of place of person if “unknown”
• Send a word or picture mail.
20
• Close the cell phone
Tests in community settings
•
Before and after simulation training, the
participant was required to send word or
picture mail in the two kinds of
community settings;
1) When the participant was in some fixed
places;
bus stop, restaurant, class room, etc.,
where the landmark was easy to find.
2) When the participant was on walking
where the landmark was not easy to find.
21
Results
• Report of place and person
After simulation training, the participant became to
be able to send the mail of correct report of the place
or the person through word mail or picture mail (see
Results (1)).
In the community settings, the participant used only
the picture mail when asked “what can you see?”
(Results (2) c ) On the other hand, he used both
word and picture mail for answering to “Who is with
you?” depending on the person who was known or
unknown. (Results (2) a,b)
When asked for the place during walking in the
community and there was no proper landmark, the
participant spontaneously kept walking until finding
22
some proper object and sent it to the listener.
Results (1) Correct response
ratio in behavior units
bl
simulation training
bl( on walking)
post test
generalizati
on test
post test
training
100
80
「what can you see?」
Percentage of correct responses
60
40
walking
20
0
1
100
80
60
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
17
19
21
23
25
27
29
31
33
35
37
39
41
43
45
47
49
51
53
55
57
59
61
63
「who is with you?」
40
p
p
known
unkown
20
0
1
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
17
19
21
23
25
27
29
31
33
35
37
39
41
43
45
47
49
51
53
55
57
59
61
sessions
23
63
65
65
Results (2) Examples of mail
the participant sent to the listener
a
b
Name of known
person :“りく”
(Kana character)
A Picture of
unknown person
c
Picture of unknown
place
24
Discussion
• By using the still picture function of cell phone,
even the Deaf person who has only restrictive
repertoires for writing could reply to the
listener the place and person with him in
community setting.
• In the course of training, the participant
learned to seek an object and take the picture
of it which should be the landmark
(discriminative stimulus) for the listener.
25
Experiment II : Mand for
place reports to listener in meeting
situation
• The participant was required to initiate to send the mail
to the listener “See what ?” in meeting situation in
community settings.
• If the given picture was hard to identify the target
place for the participant , he was taught to send the
mail “I don’t understand” and waited for the next
mail. If the participant identified the place, he was
required to sent the male “wait there” and went to the
target place to meet the listener.
• At the same time, the role of asking and answering
26
were exchanged randomly in the session.
27
Methods
• Participant, experimenters, and general procedures
were as same as in Experiment I.
• Under the task analysis table, the operation of
making a new mail containing the question about
the listener’s place (Behavior goal 1) was taught
by the total task presentation method .
• Reply to the listener in proper fashion (Behavior
goal 2) was tested as a transfer from Behavior goal
1.
28
Task-analysis table of making new
mail
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Take out the the cell phone
Open the cell phone
Push the mail switch
Open the “sky-mail” ( a device of the machine used)
Select the address page of cell phone
Open the “memory-dial search” page
Select the name of the listener’s name
Select the message of the listener’s newest mail .
Push the reply switch of cell phone.
Making the message to the listener
Send it to the listener
29
30
Results
• After the simulation training (in college room)
about the making new mail of asking for the place
of listener and the feedback phrases to the reply
mail; “I don’t know”, “Wait there” , the participant
emitted the chain of behavior in community
settings.
• And he learned to reply the mail and do the
proper behavior when he got the the feedback mail
from listener described above as transfer of the
training of making new mail.
31
Results: Sending new mail to
listener
Another picture
“ I don’t understand”
by the participant
from listener.
Participant: “ See what ?”
to the listener (Experimenter)
A picture sent
from listener
“wait” by participant
32
Results: Reply to the listener
Mail from listener
“What can you see?”
Picture taken
by participant
“wait (matte)”
by listener.
33
Discussion
The results of this study showed the possibility of the
personal and remote communication in the person who can’t
use aural mode with limited writing skill for functional
verbal behavior at least in the situation of meeting including
“in lost”( Taber, et al, 2002; Taylor, et al., 2004) by the still
picture function of cell phone.
Especially, this study showed the program of the training
and style of the probe test necessary for the functional
reporting and asking behavior of the place where the
participant or the listener was.
34
Whether the participant can or can not change
the picture of reply-mail according to the request
of listener and vice versa are critical conditions
for the functional reporting (or asking) behavior of
the place, because these changing behavior probes
that the participant understands that the landmark
is a discriminative stimulus for the listener but the
participant ( speaker ) her/himself. The
participant of this study could do these behavior
after the training conducted.
35
Recently, most of cell phone has many
kinds of communication modes, for example,
mail, still picture, movie, and T.V. In that
sense, the cell phone may be used as a kind of
A.A.C. device for the person with many
varieties of disabilities.
But, we must always research how to
develop the method of teaching and
confirming the function of the verbal behavior
using these new devices.
36
References:
• Nozoe, S., Minami, M., and Mochizuki, A. (2004)
Teaching retrieval skills using the mail function of the cell
phone to a student with developmental and hearing disabilities.
Ritsumeikan Journal of Human Sciences, 7, 181-191.
• Taber,T.A.,Alberto,P.A.,Hughes,M.,and Seltzer,A.
(2002) A strategy for students with moderate
disabilities when lost in the community.Research and
Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities,27(2),
141-152.
• Taylor, B. A., Hughes, C. E., and Richard, E.(2004)
Teaching teenagers with autism to seek assistance when lost ,
37
Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis,37,79‐82.
ダウンロード

第5回目(通算6度目:11月10日用) のレジュメ(BF5)