「バリアフリーのための心理学」（11/10） 資料 （5）ケータイで居所報告 望月昭 [email protected] HP: http//www.ritsumei.ac.jp/~mochi/ ブログ： http://d.hatena.ne.jp/marumo55/ 1 Don’t forget this paradigm ! 携帯が認められたら 携帯電話？ 2 • 「着信に気づく」：その改善について、行動 分析学的な観点から説明せよ！ ① 「見本刺激」 （メール） ② 「選択刺激」（実物） 着信信号 開 封 りんご 選 択 強化 3 気づく・見るも行動のうち 行動ユニット1 • 着信刺激（弁別刺激） 開封行動（反応） 行動ユニット2 • 言語刺激（強化） 条件刺激 選択刺激 弁別刺激 選択 強化 反応 強化 ユニット1,2を維持するのは、この 4 強化 居所報告 • 携帯電話系の研究では定番です。 モバイル性、 地域での自立（safty） ●Taber, T.A.,Alberto,P.A.,Hughes,M., and Seltzer, A. (2002) A strategy for students with moderate disabilities when lost in the community. Research and Practice for Person with Severe Disabilities, 27, 141-152. 5 今回紹介する2つの研究 ①濃添晋矢・南美知代・望月昭（2003) 聴覚障害と知 的障害がある生徒における携帯メールの使用―鉄道 駅における「駅名報告行動」獲得の検討―．日本特 殊教育学会第41回大会発表論文集, P576. ② Lu & Mochizuki（2005）； Training and functional use of the picture function of cell phone in a Deaf person with mental disability. 3rd International ABA Conference (in Beijing) 6 • 鉄道駅における「駅名報告行動」獲得の検討― ○濃添晋矢・南 美知代・望月 昭 参加者：聴覚障害と知的障害がある男子生徒U君（ろう学校高 等部２年） 平日はろう学校の寄宿舎で生活し、週末に家族の付き添いでバ スと電車で帰宅していた。 最低可聴閾は左右とも129db、IQ56（コース立方体組み合わせ テスト）であった。 携帯メールについては、メールで注文を受けた品物を持ち帰る 「要求充足」の訓練を受けており、日常生活においては食事の内 容の報告など簡単な用途での使用が見られ、受信・送信操作は 可能であったが、自分の居場所を報告することはなかった。 7 セッションの概要：３つの部分から構成 ●訓練１；通学に使用する3駅で駅名報告訓練 が行われ、「未知駅プローブ」ではU君が行っ たことのない駅でも駅名報告が可能になった かどうかが調べられた。 ●訓練２：新たに「駅名の看板を探す」という行 動ステップが加えられて訓練が行われ、再びU 君が行ったことのない駅でも駅名報告が可能 かどうか調べられた。○訓練２では、駅前広場 においても報告が可能かどうかも調べられた。 8 表1：訓練1の結果 A 4 3 2 1 行 動 ス テ ッ プ 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 文 M B 文 M A B 文 M T駅 ※ ※ ※ ※ ※ ※ 文 M A駅 ※ ※ ※ ※ ※ ※ ※ I駅 ※ 5 ※ ※ ※ ※ ※ ※ 1 2 3 4 6 7 8 9 # # # セッション ：誤反応 ：正反応 ※：母親からのメールがなかったので省略 ：訓練条件の試行 それ以外はベースライン条件 文 ：文字カード提示 M ：モデリング A：「いまどこにいますか」メールあり B：「いまどこにいますか」メールなし 9 表2：訓練2の結果 1 2 3 4 5 駅 A AS S R SNMO K H MI AG AKSO O TU A メール着信後電話を取り出す メール作成画面まで操作する無 駅名看板の下まで移動する 無 ※※※※※※ ※※ ※ ※ 駅名を入力する 無 メール送信操作をする 無 ：正反応 ：プロンプトあり 無 ：無反応 ※ ：駅名看板参照せず駅名をメール画面に入力 10 濃添論文まとめ • 「駅名報告」という具体的目標によって、 聴き手に対する報告内容を限定した。 • 駅にいるとき、あるいは近くにいるときには 最寄の駅名を送信することができた。 （3つの駅を訓練した後、新奇の駅で般化） 11 Training and functional use of the picture function of cell phone in a Deaf person with mental disability Presented at the 3rd International ABA Conference in Beijing. (2005) Jingye Lu & Akira Mochizuki Ritsumeikan Universiy (Kyoto, Japan) 12 Research on the functional use of the personal information device in the person with disability In these years, the study about the functional use of personal informational devices, i.e., cell phone, pager, and PDA, have been conducted for the independent community living of the person with disability. Taber (Taber, et al., 2002) taught middle school students to identify when they were lost and use oral and auditory mode of cell phone for assistance. Taylor (Talor, et al, 2004) taught teenagers with autism to respond to a vibrating pager to seek assistance in community . 13 Research on the use of mail function of cell phone For the person who can’t use oral nor auditory mode of communication, Nozoe (Nozoe, et al., 2004) researched a training program of functional use of the (word) mail function of cell phone, in which a Deaf student with mental disability was taught to buy the objects in community store requested by the listener through the word mail. After this training, Nozoe (Nozoe, et al., 2004) conducted the experiment in which the participant sent the name of railway station as a reply to the request of the place where the participant was. Then, what can we do for the person who can’t use cell phone through aural nor writing (word mail) mode ? 14 Experiment I: Functional use of the still picture mail of cell phone In Experiment I, we researched the functional use of still picture mail of cell phone in a Deaf student with mental disability for reporting: 1) the place where he was and 2) the name of the person who with him to the listener who asked him the questions through the word mail. 15 Behavior goals: 1) When the participant gets the mail , “What can you see ?”, reply to it, i.e., take a picture of “landmark” of the place and send it to the listener. 2) When he gets the mail, ”Who is with you?”, reply to it, i.e., take a picture of the person with him and send it to the listener. 3) In the tasks above, if the name of place or person is “Known one (he can write it )”, send the word-mail to the listener. 16 Method • Participant : A Deaf high school student with moderately mental disability, whose first language was Japanese manual sign and had limited repertoires of writing words. • Experimenter: Graduate and under graduate students of Behavior Analysis class. • Cell phone : J-PHONE J-T51, J-SH52. • Setting: Simulation training was conducted in a class room containing video recording equipment. Pre and Post tests were conducted in the campus of college and community setting. 17 Procedures • General training method: Prompting and its fading to behavior steps under the total task presentation method following task-analysis table. (see Task analysis table ) • Training of differential response to “known objects” and “unknown objects” : Participant was required to take a picture of an object presented on a table and send the picture to experimenter if the object was “unknown object” , or to send wordmail if the object was “known one” after receiving the mail “What can you see?” from the experimenter in faceto-face setting. In this training, the operation of cell phone ( reply mail ) was taught to the participant by the experimenter. 18 Training of the sending reply-mail containing the place and person in a simulation setting In the simulation setting ( in 8 settings in college ), participant was taught to send the name of the place if it was known or to take a picture of “landmark” of the place when participant got the word mail “What can you see ?” from listener. In same training sessions, the training of sending the name or picture of the person who accompanied with the participant. When participant sent the proper picture or name, the listener sent back the mail, “OK, I see. Thank you” 19 by word mail. Task-analysis table of the operation of cell phone for replying to the question: • On arrival of a message (vibration, rings, and light) from listener: Take out the cell phone from pocket of jacket. • Open the cell phone • Open the mail box • Select the new mail received in the mail box • Keep the mail page over five seconds • Move the reply mail screen. • Select and push the reply switch • Write the name of place or person if the object was “known” Take a picture of place of person if “unknown” • Send a word or picture mail. 20 • Close the cell phone Tests in community settings • Before and after simulation training, the participant was required to send word or picture mail in the two kinds of community settings; 1) When the participant was in some fixed places; bus stop, restaurant, class room, etc., where the landmark was easy to find. 2) When the participant was on walking where the landmark was not easy to find. 21 Results • Report of place and person After simulation training, the participant became to be able to send the mail of correct report of the place or the person through word mail or picture mail (see Results (1)). In the community settings, the participant used only the picture mail when asked “what can you see?” (Results (2) c ) On the other hand, he used both word and picture mail for answering to “Who is with you?” depending on the person who was known or unknown. (Results (2) a,b) When asked for the place during walking in the community and there was no proper landmark, the participant spontaneously kept walking until finding 22 some proper object and sent it to the listener. Results (1) Correct response ratio in behavior units bl simulation training bl（ on walking） post test generalizati on test post test training 100 80 「what can you see?」 Percentage of correct responses 60 40 walking 20 0 1 100 80 60 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61 63 「who is with you?」 40 p p known unkown 20 0 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61 sessions 23 63 65 65 Results (2) Examples of mail the participant sent to the listener a b Name of known person :“りく” (Kana character) A Picture of unknown person c Picture of unknown place 24 Discussion • By using the still picture function of cell phone, even the Deaf person who has only restrictive repertoires for writing could reply to the listener the place and person with him in community setting. • In the course of training, the participant learned to seek an object and take the picture of it which should be the landmark (discriminative stimulus) for the listener. 25 Experiment II : Mand for place reports to listener in meeting situation • The participant was required to initiate to send the mail to the listener “See what ?” in meeting situation in community settings. • If the given picture was hard to identify the target place for the participant , he was taught to send the mail “I don’t understand” and waited for the next mail. If the participant identified the place, he was required to sent the male “wait there” and went to the target place to meet the listener. • At the same time, the role of asking and answering 26 were exchanged randomly in the session. 27 Methods • Participant, experimenters, and general procedures were as same as in Experiment I. • Under the task analysis table, the operation of making a new mail containing the question about the listener’s place (Behavior goal 1) was taught by the total task presentation method . • Reply to the listener in proper fashion (Behavior goal 2) was tested as a transfer from Behavior goal 1. 28 Task-analysis table of making new mail • • • • • • • • • • • Take out the the cell phone Open the cell phone Push the mail switch Open the “sky-mail” ( a device of the machine used) Select the address page of cell phone Open the “memory-dial search” page Select the name of the listener’s name Select the message of the listener’s newest mail . Push the reply switch of cell phone. Making the message to the listener Send it to the listener 29 30 Results • After the simulation training (in college room) about the making new mail of asking for the place of listener and the feedback phrases to the reply mail; “I don’t know”, “Wait there” , the participant emitted the chain of behavior in community settings. • And he learned to reply the mail and do the proper behavior when he got the the feedback mail from listener described above as transfer of the training of making new mail. 31 Results: Sending new mail to listener Another picture “ I don’t understand” by the participant from listener. Participant: “ See what ?” to the listener (Experimenter) A picture sent from listener “wait” by participant 32 Results: Reply to the listener Mail from listener “What can you see?” Picture taken by participant “wait (matte)” by listener. 33 Discussion The results of this study showed the possibility of the personal and remote communication in the person who can’t use aural mode with limited writing skill for functional verbal behavior at least in the situation of meeting including “in lost”( Taber, et al, 2002; Taylor, et al., 2004) by the still picture function of cell phone. Especially, this study showed the program of the training and style of the probe test necessary for the functional reporting and asking behavior of the place where the participant or the listener was. 34 Whether the participant can or can not change the picture of reply-mail according to the request of listener and vice versa are critical conditions for the functional reporting (or asking) behavior of the place, because these changing behavior probes that the participant understands that the landmark is a discriminative stimulus for the listener but the participant ( speaker ) her/himself. The participant of this study could do these behavior after the training conducted. 35 Recently, most of cell phone has many kinds of communication modes, for example, mail, still picture, movie, and T.V. In that sense, the cell phone may be used as a kind of A.A.C. device for the person with many varieties of disabilities. But, we must always research how to develop the method of teaching and confirming the function of the verbal behavior using these new devices. 36 References: • Nozoe, S., Minami, M., and Mochizuki, A. (2004) Teaching retrieval skills using the mail function of the cell phone to a student with developmental and hearing disabilities. Ritsumeikan Journal of Human Sciences, 7, 181-191. • Taber，T．A.，Alberto，P．A.，Hughes，M.，and Seltzer，A. （2002） A strategy for students with moderate disabilities when lost in the community．Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities，27（２）， 141-152． • Taylor, B. A., Hughes, C. E., and Richard, E.（2004） Teaching teenagers with autism to seek assistance when lost ， 37 Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis,37,79‐82.