GSIのFAIR計画
織田勧
2005年6月3日(金)
CNS若手コロキウム
1/24
GSIとは
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Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung

重イオン加速器を用いて様々な研究を行
なっている研究所
ダルムシュタット(Darmstadt)はドイツの中
部南西寄りにある中規模の都市
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2/24
GSIとは(つづき)
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Foundation : 1969
Associates : Federal Republic of Germany (90%), State of Hessen (10%)
Member : Helmholtz Association
Task : Construction and operation of accelerator facilities and research of heavy
accelerated ions.
Budget : 70 Mio Euro per year
Staff : 850 employees, including 300 scientists and engineers
Capital equipment :
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Linear accelerator UNILAC
Heavy ion synchrotron SIS
Experiment storage ring ESR
Fragment separator FRS
High-energy/high-efficiency laser PHELIX (being constructed)
Several large systems of spectrometers and detectors
Medical irradiation unit for cancer therapy
Scientific Cooperation : Users of the GSI facilities are predominantly non-resident
scientists, mainly from German Universities (totalling over 1,000 scientists per year).
World-wide cooperation with approximately 150 institutes from over 30 countries.
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GSIの現在の施設
Heavy Ion Synchrotron
1-2GeV/u
Fragment Separator
High Current Linear Accelerator
15MeV/u
Storage Ring
GSIで発見された原子核
Atomic
number
Name
Symbol
Generation
Halflife
107
Bohrium
Bh
February 25, 1981
17s
108
Hassium
Hs
March 14, 1984
14s
109
Meitnerium
Mt
August 29, 1982
42ms
110
Darmstadtium
Ds
November 9, 1994
56ms
111
Roentgenium
Rg
December 8, 1994
6.4ms
112
prel.
Ununbium
Uub
February 9, 1996
0.6ms
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FAIRとは?
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Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research
加速器を増設・増強し、蓄積リングを建
設する
ビームの強度・エネルギーを大幅に向
上させる
– 1.5 GeV/u U28+ 1012/s (現在の100-1000倍)
– 34 GeV/u U92+ 109/s
– 29 GeV p 1013/s (最大90 GeV)
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6/24
ビーム冷却、加速、減速をする
広いエネルギー領域で、エネルギーの
良く定まった、大量の2次ビーム(RI, 反
陽子(3-14.5GeV))を利用できる
FAIRでの物理

Nuclear Structure Physics and Nuclear Astrophysics with RI Beams
– Structure of exotic nuclei far off stability
– Nuclear synthesis in stars and star explosions
– Fundamental interactions and symmetries
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Hadron Physics with Antiproton Beams
– Quark gluon structure and dynamics of strong interacting particles
– Origin of the confinement and mass of hadrons
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Physics of Nuclear Matter with Relativistic Nuclear Collisions
– Studies of hadronic matter at high densities
– Phase transitions in quark matter
– Properties of neutron stars
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Plasma Physics with Highly Bunched Beams
– Bulk matter at very high pressures, densities, and temperatures : Fusion and massive stars
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Atomic Physics and Applied Science
– Highly charged atoms : High field QED
– Low energy antiprotons : Anti-Matter
– Laser cooling
7/24
FAIRでどんな実験をやるのか?
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Nuclear Structure and Nuclear Astrophysics (NUSTAR)
– Low Energy Branch (LEB)
• HISPEC High-resolution In-Flight Spectroscopy
• DESPEC Decay Spectroscopy with Implanted Ion Beams
• MATS Precision Measurements of very short-lived Nuclei using an Advanced Trapping
System for highly-charged Ions
• LASPEC Laser Spectroscopy for the Study of Nuclear Properties
• NCAP Neutron Capture Measurements
• Exo+pbat Antiprotonic Radioactive Nuclides
– High Energy Branch (R3B)
• A Universal Setup for Kinematical Complete Measurements of Reactions with Relativistic
Beams
– Ring Branch (STORIB)
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•
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ILIMA Study of Isomeric Beams, Lifetimes and Masses
EXL Exotic Nuclei Studied in Light-Ion Induced Reactions at the NESR Storage Ring
ELISe Electron-Ion Scattering in a Storage Ring (e-A Collider)
pbarA Antiproton-Ion Collider : A tool for the Measurement of Neutron and Proton rms radii
of Stable and Radioactive Nuclei
• PIONIC Seprvtroscopy of Pionic Atoms with Unstable Nuclei
8/24
FAIRでどんな実験をやるのか?
(つづき)
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QCD
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Atomic Physics, Plasma Physics and Application (APPA)
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9/24
ASSIA Study of Spin-dependent Interactions with Antiprotons
CBM Compressed Baryonic Matter Experiment
DIRAC Tests of Low energy QCD
PANDA Strong Interaction Studies with Antiprotons
PAX Anti-Proton Scattering Experiments with Polarization
Laser Cooling of Highly Charged Ions at SIS 100/300
FLAIR A Facility for Low-energy Antiproton and Ion Research
Anti-deuteron Breeding in a Double Ring Collider
SPARC Stored Particles in Atomic physics Research
HEDGEHOB High Energy Density matter Generated by Heavy-iOn Beams
Applications of Relativistic Ions in Radiobiology and Space Research
Materials Research with Relativistic Heavy Ion Beams
Radiative Properties of War Dense Matter
FAIRとは?(つづき)
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10/24
SIS100 (Synchrotron 100Tm)
– Accelerates heavy
ions/protons
– Fast extraction to SIS300 or
RIB/Antiproton target
SIS300 (Synchrotron 300Tm)
– Accelerates heavy ions to
high energies
– Slow extraction
SuperFRS (Fragment Separator)
– Analyses and separates
secondary beams
CR/RESR (Collector Ring
Complex)
– Collects secondary beams
– Antiproton Storage
– Stochastic cooling
– Fast deceleration of RIBs
NESR (New Experimental Storage
Ring)
– Electron cooling
– In-beam experiment with
RIB and Primary beam
– e-A collision
HESR (High Energy Storage
Ring)
– Antiproton Storage
SIS100
SIS300
CBM
Plasma Physics
Atom Physics
PANDA
High E
Low E
e-A
FLAIR
11/24
このトラペからかなり多くの部分を引用させてもらっています。
FAIRってRIBFと似てるね
最高強度
最大エネルギー
←最高強度のとき
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FAIRってJ-PARCとも似てるね
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J-PARC(茨城県東海村)
– ニュートリノ・K中間
子・ストレンジネス・中
性子・ミューオン・核
変換
– 15 mA
~1014p/s (50GeV)

FAIR
– 反陽子・重イオン・プラ
ズマ物理・原子物理
– 1013p/s (30GeV)
600MeV
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いつ作るの?予算は?
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Building and
infrastructure 225
M EURO
Accelerator
265M EURO
Experimental
stations and
detectors 185 M
EURO
Total 675 M
EURO= 895億円
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NUSTAR
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Super FRS : NIM B 204 (2003) 71.
– FRSと比べてMomentum acceptanceが7倍、
Angular acceptanceが3倍に増えて、resolving
powerは同じ
16/24
R3 B
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数百MeV/uの高エネルギーだと下記の  Reaction with Relativistic
利点がある
Radioactive Beams
– 標的を厚くできる(1g/cm2)
– Total-absorption measurements
– ブーストされるので検出器を小さくできる
– Elastic p scattering
– 反応機構を定量的に記述できる
– Knockout
– Quasi-free scattering
– Electromagnetic excitation
– Charge-exchange reactions
– Fission
– Spallation
– Projectile fragmentation and
multifragmentation
CsI or NaI
13/20
HISPEC
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Low energy branch
(3-100 MeV/u)
– Multiple Coulomb
excitation
– Direct reactions
– Fusion evaporation
– Fragmentation
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AGATA (Advance
Gamma Tracking
Array)
ELISe (Storage ring, e-A collider)
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Structure of exotic nuclei
– Elastic (e, e)
– Inelastic (e, e’)
– Quasi-free (e, e’C), (e, e’N)
Parameters
Electron ring
Ion ring
(NESR)
Circumference
45.215 m
187.717 m
Energy
200-500 MeV
200-740 MeV/u
Number of
bunches
6-8
36-42
e- / ions per
bunch
5×1010
~107
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CBM
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Compressed Baryon Matter Experiment
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初期の素過程反応で生成されるハドロンが1 fm/c
程度の生成時間の後に再び衝突を起こすことが
できるため、平衡へと向かいつつある高バリオン
密度の状態を作ることが出来る
In-medium modification of hadrons
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 r, w, f →e+e-, D
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Strangeness in matter
– K, L, S, X, W
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Indications of deconfinement at high baryon density
– J/y, D
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Critical point
– Event-by-event fluctuation
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Color Superconductivity
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CBM (cont.)
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Radiation hard Silicon pixel/strip detectors in a dipole magnetic field.
Electron detectors : RICH, TRD and ECAL, pion suppression up to 105
Hadron identification : TOF(RPC), RICH
Measurement of photons, p0, h and m : ECAL
High speed data acquisition and trigger system
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PANDA
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Charmonium spectroscopy
Search for gluonic excitation
Search for modification of meson properties in the
nuclear medium
Precision gamma-ray spectroscopy of single and double
hypernuclei
Proton Form Factor at large Q2
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SPARC
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NESR The New Experimental Storage Ring
FLAIR A Facility for Low-energy Antiproton
and Ion Research
High-Energy Cave Atomic Physics, Bio Physics,
and Materials Science
Highly-charged heavy ions can be decelerated in
the NESR down to the MeV/u region and
extracted toward a fixed target area.
Atomic reactions with highly-charged ions at
low velocities will be performed
X-ray spectroscopic and laser techniques will be
applied.
Connected to the fixed target area will be the
HITRAP facility, where ions can be decelerated
down to almost rest and captured into a trap
system for precision measurements.
まとめ
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24/24
原子核物理の多くの分野を研究できる施
設がドイツに建設される予定
実験開始は2011年頃
実験の準備が進行中
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GSIのFAIR計画