日本研究演習(英語)A
Chris Burgess (1号館1308研究室、内線164)
[email protected] / http://edu.tsuda.ac.jp/~cburgess
きょうせい
• 「民族共生の象徴となる
空間」は、アイヌ文化復
興の「ナショナルセンタ
ー」として、北海道白老
町のポロト湖畔に整備さ
れる予定です。
http://www.queensu.ca/mcp/immigrant.html
http://www.queensu.ca/mcp/immigrant.html
Same groups as last week!
Foreign Workers & Crime:
Background
• Long term, Foreign Population has risen
– (legal residents increased 45% in last 15
years: though since 2010 have been falling)
• Total Japanese Population peaked in 2008
(128m), set to fall (2050 estimate 100m!)
Japan and Foreign Populations 1979-2010
1%
1.67%
0.67%
1. The number of illegal
foreigners (不法滞在者) in
Japan is increasing
2. Legally, foreigners who
overstay their visas (不法残
留者) in Japan are
criminals
3. Proportionally (%),
foreigners commit more
crime than Japanese
TRUE
FALSE
2,3,5,6,8,9
1,4,7
1,4,6,8,9
2,3,5,7
2,5
1,3,4,6,7,8,
9
1. The number of illegal
foreigners (不法滞在者) in
Japan is increasing
2. Legally, foreigners who
overstay their visas (不法残
留者) in Japan are
criminals
3. Proportionally (%),
foreigners commit more
crime than Japanese
TRUE
FALSE
2,3,5,6,8,9
1,4,7
1,4,6,8,9
2,3,5,7
2,5
1,3,4,6,7,8,
9
2012.3.18 DY p.2
2010.3.10 DY p.2
Visa Overstayers (estimate)
不法残留者数 (要約)
330000
2013
280000
230000
180000
130000
80000
1992
1993
1997
2003
2007
2010
Ministry of Justice (2010)
Why is the number of illegal
foreigners falling?
• Economic & employment slump
• Strengthened immigration control
measures (不法滞在者対策の強化)
October 2003 (共同宣言)
2004 GOAL: TO CUT THE
NUMBER OF ILLEGALS 50%
OVER 5 YEARS (共同宣言)
•
•
•
•
More stringent Visa Screenings
Crack down on violent crimes
Special 200 strong squad based in Tokyo
Cooperation between Tokyo Metropolitan
Government and Immigration Bureau
• 10% increase in Immigration Officers
• 不法滞在者を日本に「来させない」,「入らせな
い」,「居させない」を三本柱に
ふほう
たいざいしゃ
ねんかん
はんげん
2004: 不法滞在者を5年間で半減させる
(Collaboration between MOJ & Tokyo govt)
「5年間で48.5パーセントの不法残留
者を削減し,国民が安心して暮らせる
社会の実現に貢献した」 MOJ 2009
([We] cut the number of overstayers by 48.5% over 5
years, contributing to the realisation of a society
where citizens can live safely)
2005
2006
2007
November 2007:
Fingerprinting & photos for all nonJapanese entrants (bar zainichi)
Ironic: Fingerprinting, which started in 1955, had only
been totally abolished for foreigners in 2000 after a
long campaign against “being treated as criminals”
1. The number of illegal
foreigners (不法滞在者) in
Japan is increasing
2. Legally, foreigners who
overstay their visas (不法残
留者) in Japan are
criminals
3. Proportionally (%),
foreigners commit more
crime than Japanese
TRUE
FALSE
2,3,5,6,8,9
1,4,7
1,4,6,8,9
2,3,5,7
2,5
1,3,4,6,7,8,
9
Rise linked to abuse of refugee
application system…
1. The number of illegal
foreigners (不法滞在者) in
Japan is increasing
2. Legally, foreigners who
overstay their visas (不法残
留者) in Japan are
criminals
3. Proportionally (%),
foreigners commit more
crime than Japanese
TRUE
FALSE
2,3,5,6,8,9
1,4,7
1,4,6,8,9
2,3,5,7
2,5
1,3,4,6,7,8,
9
新出入国
管理法
(1990)
• Penalties for
Employers
• Visas for Nikkejin
1992
出入国管
理法改正
(2000)
Illegal stay
becomes a
crime
(不法在留罪が新
しく設けられた)
=不法就労助長罪
1993
1997
出入国管
理法一部
を改正する
法律
(2004)
• Increased fines
for illegals
• Reentry ban
2003
from
5 to 10年
1. The number of illegal
foreigners (不法滞在者) in
Japan is increasing
2. Legally, foreigners who
overstay their visas (不法残
留者) in Japan are
criminals
3. Proportionally (%),
foreigners commit more
crime than Japanese
TRUE
FALSE
2,3,5,6,8,9
1,4,7
1,4,6,8,9
2,3,5,7
2,5
1,3,4,6,7,8,
9
Number of Incidents Leading to Arrests/Apprehensions (1985-2010)
Total Number of
arrests (people)
Penal code
offenses (cases)
Special Act
Offenses (cases)
=visa crimes
(which Japanese
can’t commit!)
27,836
13,257
2005
Police White Paper 2010 (警察白書22年)
1. The number of illegal
foreigners (不法滞在者) in
Japan is increasing
2. Legally, foreigners who
overstay their visas (不法残
留者) in Japan are
criminals
3. Proportionally (%),
foreigners commit more
crime than Japanese
TRUE
FALSE
2,3,5,6,8,9
1,4,7
1,4,6,8,9
2,3,5,7
2,5
1,3,4,6,7,8,
9
Foreign crime data
tends to focus on
arrests; if
foreigners targeted,
then more arrests!
Reported
offences=number of
reported crimes
allegedly committed
Reported Offences
(刑法犯 件数)
けいほうはん
Arrests
(検挙人員)
けんきょ
Total Crimes 2009
(2008)
1,703,044
(1,818,023)
544,699
(573,392)
‘Foreign’ crimes 09 (08)
27,836 (31,252)
13,257 (13,885)
%
1.63% (1.72% )
2.4% (2.4%)
Registered Foreigners
as % of total population
外国人登録者数の総人口の%
1.71% (1.74%)
1. The number of illegal
foreigners (不法滞在者) in
Japan is increasing
TRUE
FALSE
2,3,5,6,8,9
1,4,7
But hang on a
second…
2. Legally, foreigners who
overstay their visas (不法残
留者) in Japan are
criminals
3. Proportionally (%),
foreigners commit more
crime than Japanese
1,4,6,8,9
2,3,5,7
2,5
1,3,4,6,7,8,
9
らいにち がいこくじん (literally “foreigners in Japan”)
Total Number of
arrests (people)
Penal code
offenses (cases)
Special Act
Offenses (cases)
2005
Police White Paper 2010 (警察白書22年)
らいにち がいこくじん
Who are 来日外国人 (lit. “foreign
nationals visiting Japan”)?
• 来日外国人 is a special category used by the NPA
(警察庁) to present foreign crime data
• Defined as follows in 2002 white paper:
– “「来日外国人」means all foreigners in Japan, except for
residents (permanent residents etc) , US military
personnel, and those who visa status is unclear”
http://www.npa.go.jp/toukei/keiji8/H14_27.pdf (p。128)
• The number of foreign nationals visiting Japan (=
来日外国人) was 6.8 million in 2009 and 8.4
million in 2008. Therefore, 来日外国人 comprised
5.35% of total “population” in 2009 (6.6 % in 2008)
(if total population taken as 127 million)
Reported Offences
(刑法犯 件数)
Arrests
(検挙人員)
Total Crimes 2009
(2008)
1,703,044
(1,818,023)
544,699
(573,392)
‘Foreign’ crimes 09 (08)
27,836 (31,252)
13,257 (13,885)
%
1.63% (1.72% )
2.4% (2.4%)
外国人登録者数の総人
口の%
1.71% (1.74%)
来日外国人の総人口
の%
5.35% (6.6%)
1. The number of illegal
foreigners (不法滞在者) in
Japan is increasing
2. Legally, foreigners who
overstay their visas (不法残
留者) in Japan are
criminals
3. Proportionally (%),
foreigners commit more
crime than Japanese
TRUE
FALSE
2,3,5,6,8,9
1,4,7
1,4,6,8,9
2,3,5,7
2,5
1,3,4,6,7,8,
9
1. The number of illegal
foreigners (不法滞在者) in
Japan is increasing
2. Legally, foreigners who
overstay their visas (不法残
留者) in Japan are
criminals
3. Proportionally (%),
foreigners commit more
crime than Japanese
TRUE
FALSE
2,3,5,6,8,9
1,4,7
1,4,6,8,9
2,3,5,7
2,5
1,3,4,6,7,8
,9
(1998 White Paper on Crime)
第9章 国際化社会と警察活動
検挙人員全体に占める来日外国人
構成比の高さ
(1998 Police White Paper)
「我が国の総人口(満14歳以上)に占める来日
外国人人口の構成比は約1.0%であるとみられ
るが、9年の刑法犯検挙人員全体に占める来日
外国人検挙人員の構成比は1.7%である。この
ように人口構成比との比較で見た場合、検挙人
員全体に占める来日外国人の構成比の高いこ
とは、国際化がもたらす治安上の問題として注
目する必要がある。」(1998 警察白書)
(“there is a need to focus on this problem of
public security brought about by kokusaika”)
FALSE
Foreigners make up
1.7% of those arrested
for criminal offenses
Foreigners make
Following
questioning
in
the
Diet,
this
up 1% of total
passage population
was deleted from the white
paper. This shows the tendency to use
foreigners as scapegoats to explain the
rising crime figures – and deflect
criticism from the police
来日外国人 make
up 4.5% of total
population
TRUE
来日外国人 make up
1.7% of those arrested
for criminal offenses
TRUE
FALSE
1. The number of illegal
foreigners (不法滞在者) in
Japan is increasing
2,3,5,6,8,9
1,4,7
4. Japan needs to bring
in many more foreign
workers in order to
sustain its economy
1,2,3,6,7,8,9
4,5
2,9
1,3,4,5,6,7,
8
5. The increase in foreign
workers over the past 10
years has made Japan
more dangerous
“The Underground Files of Gaijin Crime”
http://japanfocus.org/-Arudou-Debito/2386
(外国人)犯罪不安社会?
(the collapse of the ‘safe’ society?)
「本当にこの国は安全なのか。最近、女
性は東京では、夜、外を歩けなくなってい
るのではないか。言いにくいことだが、外
国人が随分日本に入ってきている。こう
いう人達が日本に入って、不法に生活し
ていることは子供や女性にとっては、恐ろ
しいなあと思う面もある。」 讀賣新聞1999年10月17日
( 自民党の森幹事長、佐賀市での自民党佐賀県
政経セミナーの講義で)
(外国人)犯罪不安社会?
(the collapse of the ‘safe’ society?)
YS, APRIL 2005
• 2003 Visit Japan campaign aimed to double
the number of tourists to 10 million by 2010
(new goal: 18 million by 2016)
• BUT, almost 1 in 3 Japanese oppose
increase in foreign tourists…(2003 survey)
• WHY? 90.2% cited a rise in foreign crimes!
http://www.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/getarticle.pl5?nn20031102a9.htm
Foreigners will Riot, Says Tokyo
Leader (April 2000)
During a ceremony at the Ground Self-Defense
Force's garrison in Nerima Ward, Tokyo, Ishihara said,
“A large number of “sangokujin*” and other
foreigners, repeatedly commit heinous crimes;
if an earthquake occurs, they are bound to riot”
「不法入国した多くの三国人、外国人の凶悪な犯罪が繰
り返されており、震災が起きたら騒擾事件が予想される」
* Sangokujin: lit. "people from third countries," used after WWII to refer to
citizens from the former Japanese colonies of Korea and Taiwan. Although the
word is rarely used now, it still carries derogatory connotations.
1923 Great Kanto Earthquake
(関東大震災)
• Rumours that Koreans were taking
advantage of the disaster, committing
arson and robbery, and poisoning the
wells
– As a result as many as 6,000 Korean, Chinese, and
other residents were massacred
• In the aftermath of the 1995 Kobe quake, nonJapanese and Japanese worked together and
helped each other
2006/2012 Survey Report on Public
Security (治安に関する世論調査 )
81.1%
2006
84.3%
治安が悪くなったと思う原因
(The reason why I think public security got worse)
内閣府
世論調査
2012
2006
Aug. 2010 Editorial
in the Yomiuri
“The 2010 White Paper
says that the
“seriousness” of foreign
crime is “increasing”.
However, it is possible to
look at it the opposite
way. In fact, since arrests
peaked in 2005 at
47,865, they have fallen
for four straight years and
last year stood at
27,836.”
Japan News 2014.03.29 p. 2
Japan News 2015.04.24 p. 2
外国人犯罪は減少傾向も警察庁
「引き続き高い水準」
(Despite fall, Police say foreign crime
“continues to be at a high level”)
警察庁によると、国内の外国
人犯罪の検挙件数は、2014
年が1万5215件と前年(1万
5419件)に比べて微減。ピ
ークだった2005年(4万786
5 件)に比べて3分の1まで
減少している。ただ、平成初
頭の数年は6千件前後で推
移しており、警察庁は「外国
人犯罪は引き続き高い水準
にある」と分析している。
産経ニュース 2015.9.17
TRUE
FALSE
1. The number of illegal
foreigners (不法滞在者) in
Japan is increasing
2,3,5,6,8,9
1,4,7
4. Japan needs to bring
in many more foreign
workers in order to
sustain its economy
1,2,3,6,7,8,9
4,5
2,9
1,3,4,5,6,7,
8
5. The increase in foreign
workers over the past 10
years has made Japan
more dangerous
Next Week: Debate
• “Japan should import
more foreign workers”
「日本は外国人労働者を
もっと受け入れるべきだ」
• Homework: Do some
research on the pros
& cons for next week!
Replacement Migration: Is it a
Solution to Declining and Aging
Population? (UN, 2000)
• Japan will need to accept 600,000 foreign
workers a year for the next fifty years in
order to sustain its economy at the 1995
level
(国連の予想によると、労働人口を安定させる
ためには、2050年まで毎年日本は60万人の
外国人労働者を「輸入」しないといけない)
(http://database.asahi.com/library2/)
• 抜かれる日本、冷静な目 「いまとこれから」
朝日新聞社世論調査
• 将来、少子化が続いて人口が減り、経済の規
模を維持できなくなった場合、外国からの移
民を幅広く受け入れることに賛成ですか。反
対ですか (would you accept large-scale immigration
in the interests of reviving Japan?)
•
•
賛成 (yes) 26
反対 (no) 65
• 人口減少への対策と
して、日本に定住を希
望する外国人を、移
民として受け入れるこ
とに、賛成ですか、反
対ですか
(As a counter-measure to
the falling population, do
you agree or disagree
with allowing in foreigners
who want to settle in
Japan as migrants?)
Yomiuri 2015/08/26 p. 12
警察白書: GROUP WORK
• Find the official definition of 来日外国人(p. 158)
– Notice how they are lined up with gangsters & smugglers!
• In terms of reported offences (刑法犯) what pattern
can we see for individual (単独)crimes? (p. 159)
• How many 来日外国人 (=外国人入国者)were there
in 2003? Is this more or less than the number of
legal foreign residents (1.9m) in 2003? (p. 186)
• Roughly what % of arrests are for ‘special’ (mostly
visa-related) ‘crimes’ (特別法犯検挙件数)? (p. 186)
• In terms of ‘heinous’ crimes (凶悪犯), what kind of
crime has seen the biggest rise? (p. 187)
日本研究演習(英語)A
Chris Burgess (1号館1308研究室、内線164)
[email protected] / http://edu.tsuda.ac.jp/~cburgess
• Top six items that foreign visitors have found
a problem with:
•
1.
• 2.
• 3.
• 4.
• 5.
• 6.
Top six items that foreign visitors have found a
problem with:
1. Lack of signposts, maps, street signs indicated
in foreign languages (37.3%)
2. Inconvenient locations of tourist information
center (28.9%)
3. Difficulty in communicating in foreign languages
– even in English (20.0%)
4. Too few installations of ATM that accepts credit
cards (17.8%)
5. Complexity in using public transportation
(15.4%)
6. Insufficient number of trash cans and benches
in town (14.0%)
Senkaku Islands dispute with
China playing out as a PR battle
• Japan and China are
mounting global diplomatic
campaigns in hopes of
strengthening their
competing claims to the
Senkaku Islands in the East
China Sea, with Tokyo
recently reversing course on
its policy of avoiding
vigorous counterarguments
to the Chinese claims.
'Comfort women' sign in Times
Square urges Japan to apologize
The ad, with the slogan
"Do You Remember?"
shows former German
chancellor Willy Brandt
kneeling in apology in
front of a monument for
the Jewish ghetto in
Warsaw during his 1970
visit to Poland. It seeks
similar contrition from
Tokyo.
October 07, 2012
Explanation, no apology…
• "I won't apologize, I'll explain. When I said 'sangokujin,' I
wasn't talking about Korean or Taiwanese nationals. I was
referring to foreigners who are here illegally and whose crimes
are becoming rampant.”
• “In Tokyo, illegal aliens commit atrocious crimes that do not
occur in the rest of the country. Pakistanis pushing Chinesemade drugs make parts of Tokyo ‘lawless’ at night.”
• "(The drug) problem is rampant because of those foreigners –
the true sangokujin. Try walking in (Tokyo's) Kabukicho at
certain hours of the night – you'd never believe you were in
Japan. Even yakuza are afraid to go there after midnight. And
women can't go there on their own."
• "I'm talking about a more large-scale riot, like the (1992) riots
that occurred in Los Angeles."
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Who are 来日外国人