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Web2.0 Impact on Language Learning Paradigm
Hideto D. Harashima
原島 秀人
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Web2.0
is often dubbed ……
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Web3.0
is often dubbed ……
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Web2.0
“What is Web2.0?” Tim O’Reilly (2005)
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Social media
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Web as a platform
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Web for participation, not for publishing
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Architecture of participation
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Built-in ethic of cooperation
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Communications-oriented systems
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Interoperability (not one developer controlling the system)
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Read-Write Web
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Long tail
=/ volunteerism
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Web2.0
“What is Web2.0?” Tim O’Reilly (2005)
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Wisdom of crowds (群衆の叡智、集合知)
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Folksonomy <==> taxonomy
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Viral marketing (words of mouth 口コミ)
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The incremental web = live web
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Infoware (database management)
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The perpetual beta
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Software above the level of a single device
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Web2.0 7 Principles
(Akiyoshi)
「意外と知られていないWeb2.0の謎を解く」秋好陽介 C&R研究所 Internet. June, 2006
1.The Web as platform
2.Harnessing collective intelligence
3.Data is the next Intel Inside
4.End of the software release cycle
5.Light-weight programming models
6.Software above the level of a single device
7.Rich user experiences
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Who is Web2.0 to do with?
IT Developers
Web 2.0
Business,
Marketing
Education
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Web2.0 Impact on Education
compathy
sharing
Feeding knowledge to the knowledge poor
(dietitian model)
Learning by creating new knowledge
(social-constructionist model)
collaboration
communication
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1. Web as a platform
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Web browser is no longer just a tool to browse through
web pages – it becomes the OS of the learning activities
as a whole
– Information search、reading、listening、writing、speaking、video
watching、email exchange、communication (text chat, voice chat) –
all of these activities are now seamlessly executable on a Web
browser
– Sophisticated Language Labs and “CALL” systems are losing
ground for networked computers with a web browser
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Educational system itself migrates into Web
– Educational courses are being offered through Web using LMS
(learning management system) where course management,
materials presentation, activity monitoring, questions and answers,
peer support, etc. are all possible.
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2. Social Media
Web as a blackboard
Web as a community
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Knowledge publishing
Knowledge sharing
Place for communication and socialization
Social constructionism/constructivism
– Learning happens through participation in social activities:
Vygotsky
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Communication becomes the base for all activities
(communications-oriented system)
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History of Approaches and Foci in Second Language Pedagogy
by Don Hinkelman
Pre-1970s
1970s-1990s
Post-1990s
Reductionism
Constructivism
Connectionism
Dominant Theory
Structural
Cognitive
Sociocultural
Dominant Metaphor
Instruction
Acquisition
Socialisation
Research Unit of Analysis
Sentence
Discourse
Actions, Effects
Role of Learner
Imitator
Processor
Apprentice
Accuracy &
Fluency
Skill & Strategy
Participation & Use
Pedagogical Technique
Error-correction
Consciousness-raising
Project-creation
Pedagogic Assessment
Proficiency
Competency
Fulfillment
Native Production
Global Proficiency
Local Accomplishment
Design World
Drill
Task
Environment/Community
Design Models
Fixed, Rule-based
Linear, Input-Output
Ecological, Semiotic
Philosophical Perspective
Pedagogical Goals
Pedagogic Success
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History of Approaches and Foci in Second Language Pedagogy
by Don Hinkelman
Pre-1970s
1970s-1990s
Post-1990s
Reductionism
Constructivism
Connectionism
Dominant Theory
Structural
Cognitive
Sociocultural
Dominant Metaphor
Instruction
Acquisition
Socialisation
Research Unit of Analysis
Sentence
Discourse
Actions, Effects
Role of Learner
Imitator
Processor
Apprentice
Accuracy & Fluency
Skill & Strategy
Participation & Use
Pedagogical Technique
Error-correction
Consciousness-raising
Project-creation
Pedagogic Assessment
Proficiency
Competency
Fulfillment
Native Production
Global Proficiency
Local Accomplishment
Design World
Drill
Task
Environment/Community
Design Models
Fixed, Rule-based
Linear, Input-Output
Ecological, Semiotic
Philosophical Perspective
Pedagogical Goals
Pedagogic Success
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Evolution of Language Learning Theories
by Don Hinkelman
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Second Language Instruction (SLI)
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Second Language Acquisition (SLA)
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Second Language Socialization (SLS)
– A second language is learned best by joining a community that uses that
language for specific purposes.
– It happens through purposeful projects and tasks inside that community.
– Teaching is by designing and facilitating a community that is full of reallife projects for students to do.
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Blending of LMS and SNS
Social Networking Services (Mixi, MySpace, Vox, openBC,
etc.) are now adopted into LMS
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A case with Nihon Fukushi University by Prof. Shinichi
Sato
- blending of Elluminate and Second Life with LMS
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3. Collective intelligence
for knowledge creation
(衆知創発)
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From specialist knowledge (専門知)
To collective intelligence (集合知)
(wisdom of crowds)
The paradox of knowledge-oriented society
– “knowledge-oriented society” is a society where “knowledge”
becomes worthless.
– Knock, and the door will be opened; search, and the answer will
be found; ask, and somebody will be able to answer your question
in web communities. (Community solution)
– Wikipedia
– Blogosphere
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3. Collective intelligence
for knowledge creation
(衆知創発)
Then what is the role of a teacher?
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A leader with charisma – who can attract attentions and
maintain solidarity among the students
A good planner – who can keep proposing a common
purpose/project and motivate students
A good coordinator -- who can invite all students into
discussions and urge them to create something
meaningful
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4. Perpetual Beta
(永遠の未完)
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From commercial software packages
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To open source/public domain resources
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Unstable and not very reliable
Lively and incremental content
Teaching materials shift from “stock” to “flow”
– Textbooks, CD-ROMs,
– Online materials, Open Source systems
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5. Power shift
and collaboration/co-creation
(主客融合と協働・協創)
Authority,
Subordinate
The Powers That Be
broadcaster
producer
companies
teachers
collaboration
audience
consumer
clients
students
Prosumer-style development
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New Learning Style
by Reiko Ikeda, 池田玲子
(former)
Bank Account Style
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Teacher-led
Broadcasting
Competition
Individual learning
Goal seeking
東京海洋大学海洋科学部
(now)
Collaborative Learning
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Learner-centered
Participation
Collaboration
Group learning
Creation-oriented
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Collaborative Leaning in a Narrow Sense
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Group Work
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Team-based Learning
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Co-operative Learning
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Collaborative Learning
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Peer Education
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Cohort Learning
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Collective Leaning Styles
Group work
A task that is done by a group of people
Team-Based A carefully managed pedagogical system that
Learning
relies on small permanent classroom groups. It
maximizes the helping and co-operative behaviour
of individual students and directs that behaviour
towards specific learning goals. Team-Based
Learning is central to the entire course design
and goes beyond the conventional and occasional
use of randomly selected groups for class
discussion.
http://www.tag.ubc.ca/programs/PBLOverview.ph
p
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Collaborative Leaning in a Narrow Sense (cntd)
Cooperative
Learning
Collaborative
Learning
A specific kind of collaborative learning. In cooperative learning, students
work together in small groups on a structured activity. They are
individually accountable for their work, and the work of the group as a
whole is also assessed. Cooperative groups work face-to-face and learn
to work as a team.
http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/coopcollab/index.html
Collaborative learning is a method of teaching and learning in which
students team together to explore a significant question or create a
meaningful project. A group of students discussing a lecture or students
from different schools working together over the Internet on a shared
assignment are both examples of collaborative learning.
http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/coopcollab/index.html
*consensus building through cooperation
Ted Panitz (1996)
*get students to work with faculty to create knowledge together
Saltiel and Russo (2001)
*build up an intelligence to co-live in a society
Kajiura (2007)
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Other collective learning styles
Peer Education
Peer Education (PE) is all about empowering
and training local volunteers from local
communities, so they can then go back to
‘grass roots level’ and informally teach their
friends and neighbours.
By St. John Training eNews
http://www.orderofstjohn.org/pdf/Training%20
News%20v2.1.pdf
Cohort Learning A group of individuals who enter a program at
the same time, proceed through all classes and
academic program requirements together, and
complete the program as a group.
Saltiel and Russo (2001)
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「個別学習」との対比として
「「学べる力」を伸ばす授業」梶浦 真、教育報道出版社、2006
合同作業 みんなで一緒に作業をしないと実現できない課題をクリアする為に行
う。課題を多人数で合理的に解決する場合に有効な活動形態。
同調学習 教師が与える価値や学習の方向に同調させることを目的とする。また、
自己を主張するよりも、自分の意見や主体性を制御して従うことを目
指す。個人よりも集団と歩調を合わせるタイプの学習形態。
協調学習 学習課題に対して子ども個々の個性や能力を発揮させながら、解決
協同学習 を図ることを目的とする。共通の課題にグループで取り組む様な学習
形態のこと。主に学習の形態に着目した言葉。
共同学習
協働学習 他の学習者と共に働きかけ合うことを通して「知を確かなものにする」
「知的に他者と関わる能力を育てる」ということが目的である。単に、
「複数の人間が関わる」という形態を目指すものではない。協働という
働きかけ合いの作用に着目して、学習の成立を捉える。また、「協働
を可能にする資質や能力」も学力と捉える。他者の意見を聞くことで、
自分の意見と比較したり、思考したりする知性を育てる。また、他者に
説明すること(言外化)によって、既知の知識を確かにする。つまり、
“社会を共に生きる力としての知性”を子どもに育てることを目指す。
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Collaboration among Schools Using ICT
CSCL = Computer Supported
Collaborative Learning
Students at different schools participate in
a common project via the Internet
E.g. Osaka University and Keio University
Educators are tying to go over the walls of
LMS domains and get united
E.g. Monkasho special grant in aid program
(Harashima and others, 2007.)
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Collaboration among Schools Using ICT
CSCL = Computer Supported
Collaborative Learning
Similar notions:
Personal Learning Environment (PLE)
-- connect a student with a network of teachers,
other students, and resources.
by Stephen Downes
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Connected Learning
by Cornwell and Cornwell
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Wikinomics
–- How Mass Collaboration Changes Everything -Don Tapscott and Anthony D. Williams, 2006
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“These changes, among others, are ushering us toward a
world where knowledge, power, and productive
capability will be more dispersed than at any time in our
history – a world where value creation will be fast, fluid,
and persistently disruptive. A world where only the
connected will survive. A power shift is underway, and
a tough new business rule is emerging: Harness the new
collaboration or perish. Those who fail to grasp this will
find themselves ever more isolated – cut off from the
networks that are sharing, adapting, and updating
knowledge to create value.”
--p.13
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Wikinomics
–- How Mass Collaboration Changes Everything -Don Tapscott and Anthony D. Williams, 2006
“The losers built a web site;
the winners built a lively community.
The losers built a garden with walls around it;
the winners built a plaza where everybody is welcome.
The losers tried to innovate by themselves;
the winners tried to innovate with users.
The losers tried to keep the data and software interface to themselves;
the winners made them public.”
English translation by Harashima
Adopted from p. 64 of the book’s Japanese edition
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Bibliography
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Cornwell, W. R. and J. R. Cornwell, (Retrieved 2007) “Connected Learning: A
Framework of Observation, Research and Development to Guide the Reform
of Education,” Online: Available
http://tcfir.org/whitepapers/Connected%20Learning%20Framework.pdf
Don Hinkelman (2007) “Blended Learning Communities and Socio-cultural
Theory,” Slides presented at JALTCALL 2007 at Waseda University.
Don Tapscott and Anthony D. Williams, “Wikinomics: How Mass
Collaboration Changes Everything,” Portfolio, USA. 2006.
Downes, S. (2007) Personal Learning the Web 2.0 Way. Online: Available
http://www.slideshare.net/Downes/personal-learning-the-web-20-way
O’Reilly, T. (2005) “What is Web2.0” Online: Retrieved August 4, 2007 from
http://www.oreillynet.com/pub/a/oreilly/tim/news/2005/09/30/what-isweb-20.html
Panitz, T. (1996) “A Definition of Collaborative vs Cooperative Learning,”
Online: Retrieved on August 4, 2007 from
http://www.city.londonmet.ac.uk/deliberations/collab.learning/panitz2.html
Sltiel, I.M, C.S.Russo (2001) Cohort Programming and Learning, Malabar:
Krieger Publishing Company.
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池田玲子(2007)『協働と協働学習』2007年(財)交流協会 日
本語教育冬季研修会スライド
梅田望夫(2006)『ウェブ進化論』ちくま新書
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日野公三(1999)『インターネット教育革命』PHP研究所
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Open up!
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Share!
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Collaborate!
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Thank you for listening.
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Web2.0がもたらす語学教育のパラダイムシフト