A Survey of Application
Protocols for Wireless Devices
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Introduction
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
SMS
HDML
I-mode
WAP
LEAP
Summary
Conclusion
2000-12-04
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SMS (Short Message Service)
• Used to send messages from one device to
another
• Gateways from and to Internet e-mail
• Very popular, particularly in Europe
2000-12-04
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HDML (Handheld Device
Markup Language)
<HDML version="3.0" markable="true">
<CHOICE name="main" key="pgtarg">
<ACTION type="accept" task="go" dest="/redirs_hd3.hdml?pgtarg=$(pgtarg)">
<ACTION TYPE="SOFT1" LABEL="ABOUT" task=gosub dest="/hd3/about.hdml">
<ACTION TYPE="help" task=gosub dest="/hd3/help.hdml?help=index">
<LINE>INFOSPACE
<ce task="go" dest="/hd3/my.hdml?&r=25569" REL=NEXT>My InfoSpace
<CE task="go" dest="#direc">Directories
<CE value="invi">Finance
<CE value="spti">Sports
<CE value="funst">Entertainment <CE value="nwsi">News
<CE value="weat">Weather
<CE value="ylwdir">Directions
</CHOICE>
<CHOICE name="direc" key="pgtarg">
<ACTION type="accept" task="go" dest="/redirs_hd3.hdml?pgtarg=$(pgtarg)">
<ACTION label="DONE" type="soft1" task="go" dest="#main">
<WRAP>DIRECTORIES
<CE value="ppli">White Pages <CE value="ylwi">Yellow Pages
<CE value="pplrl">Reverse Lookup
<CE task="go"
dest="http://yp.infospace.com/hd3/yel/finders.hdml?yp_f=N&r=25569"> Finders
</CHOICE>
</HDML>
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I-mode
<html><head>
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2000-12-04
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WAP (Wireless Application
Protocol)
• The most widely-known solution (but not
the most widely used)
• Works on practically any bearer (including
non-IP)
• Complete protocol stack (not just
application level)
• Heavily criticized
2000-12-04
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LEAP (Lightweight and Efficient
Application Protocol)
• “Underdog effort”: unlike WAP, no massive
corporative support
• Focus on messaging solutions
• Works using a binary remote procedure call
protocol (ESRO: efficient short remote operation
protocol)
• Using EMSD (Efficient Mail Submission and
Delivery Protocol), sending a short message
requires 3 transmission, instead of at least 9 using
TCP and SMTP.
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LEAP Protocols
EMSD EHTD
…
ESRO
UDP or equivalent
IP
Bearer
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Summary
Specifies transfer method
Specifies content format
Compatible with HTML
Compatible with XML
Primary application
Currently in use
Underlying protocol
Navigation model
Scripting and application
Openness of protocols
2000-12-04
i-mode
No (closed)
Yes (cHTML)
Yes
No
Web
Yes
Unspecified
Hyperlinks
Java (future)
Mostly closed
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WAP
Yes
Yes (WML)
No
Yes
Web
Yes
Many
Cards
WMLScript
Open (licensing
issues)
LEAP
Yes
No
Unknown
Unknown
Messaging
No
IP and UDP
Unknown
Unknown
Open
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Conclusions
• 3G (UMTS, GSM GPRS, etc.) networks are IP
based; is the WAP proxy model still justified?
• WAP: XHTML and maybe TCP in next version…
protocol stack slowly starting to erode.
• LEAP: good idea, but no real taker so far.
• i-mode: based on HTML; future lies in XML;
however, much richer experience (video on 3G;
Java games, etc.)
2000-12-04
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