The 2nd Workshop on Air Quality Modeling Challenges
Chemical Composition of Aerosols in the VMAP Network
over Japan during the ACE-Asia Field Campaign 2001:
What we need from modeling studies
Mitsuo Uematsu ⁄¤‹›
Center for International Cooperation
Ocean Research Institute
University of Tokyo
Nakano, Tokyo Japan
At Tsukuba Convention Center Epochal,
Tsukuba, Japan
10 March 2003
Biomass Burning
Region with High
Marine
Productivity
Asian Dust Storm
Volcanic Plume
From Miyake Is.
With
Anthropogenic
substances
Biomass Burning
SeaWiFS image (19 March 2002)
Western North
Pacific Region
60o N
50o N
Ri shi ri
40o N
Dunhua ng
Beij ing
Seoul Sa do
Ta ngo
Zhenbei ta i
Qi ngdao
Kosan
Ha chij o
Fuk ue
30o N
Midw ay
Lina n
Ama m i
Chi chi ji ma
Hong Kong
La n-yu
20o N
10o N
100o E
120o E
140o E
160o E
ACE-Asia Ground Station Network over East Asia
180o
Rishiri
45.12˚N, 141.20˚E
Hachijo
33.15˚N, 139.75˚E
Sado
38.25˚N, 138.40˚E
Chichi-jima
27.07˚N, 142.22˚E
VMAP Ground Measurement Network
・Determine the latitudinal (along the 140˚E line)
and the seasonal variability of chemical
composition of aerosol from the Asian continent to
the western North Pacific region.
・Determine the interaction among natural aerosols,
anthropogenic aerosols and gasses during transport
over the marginal seas and the western North
Pacific region.
・Reproduce the observation data by a regional
chemical transport model (CFORS). Then estimate
the outflow fluxes to eastward (AQPMS).
Instruments information
Measurements
Rishiri
Aerosol PM2.5 OC/EC
●
Fine &Coarse Major Ions
●
Fine &Coarse Trace Elements
●
Bulk Organic Compounds
Black Carbon
Aerosol Number Concentration
●
Ozone
○
CO
SO2
○
Radon
Particle Mass PM2.5 or 10 TEOM○
Weather Condition
△
(Temp, Humid, Pres, Wind D&S, Ppt)
●
Sado
Hachijo Chichi-jima
●
●
●(2001.11-) ●
●(2001.11-) ●
○
○
○
△
●
●
●
●
○
○
●
○
●
○
●
●
○
△
●
●
△
△
● (in operation by ORI); ○ (by others); △ (from EANET)
Present Status
until June 2003
(1) Organic Carbon/Elemental Carbon
(Series 5400 Ambient Carbon Particulate Monitor R&P
Co. Inc.)
(2) Number concentration of particles
(KC-01, KC-18, Rion Co. Ltd.; TS-400 Hitachi Co.)
(3) Mass concentration of particles
(Series 1400 TEOM, R&P Co. Inc.)
(4) Soluble ions and trace metals in particles
(ACS21, AS9, Kimoto Electric Co Ltd.)
(5) Black Carbon
(Aethalometer, Magee Scientific Co.)
(6) Ozone (Model1150, Dylec, Inc.)
(7) Sulfur dioxide
(SA-631, Kimoto Electric Co Ltd.)
(8) Radon (Spectrum Analyzer)
(9) Dimethylsulfide (GC with cryo-trap system)
(10) Meteorological data
HVDVI( High Volume Dichotomous Virtual Impactor)
air
Filter
To pump
Ambient Carbon Particulate Monitor
Flow Schematic
With or without
Denuder
Particulate Org. C
or Reactive Org. C
Urban Aerosol in Tokyo
Na_C_tef
Cl_C_tef
Na_f_tef
Ca2_f_tef
K_C_tef
NO3_C_tef
NH4_f_tef
Cl_f_tef
Mg_C_tef
SO4_C_tef
K_f_tef
Ca_C_tef f ilt e r_ co a r se
NO3_f_tef
f in e
Mg2_f_tef
3.5
SO42_f_tef
10
2
Na_f_ tef
1.5
1
Teflon Filter
2.5
Na_C_tef
Teflon Filter
3
8
6
4
2
0.5
0
0
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
Whatman 41 Filter
C_what
Coarse Particles
3.5
0
2
4
6
8
Whatman 41 Filter
f_ what
Fine Particles
10
Particulate OC from the ACPM
3
with the denuder (μg/m )
3
Tokyo 4h
Tokyo 1h
Ri shi ri 4h
2
1
0
0
0.5
1
The rati o of the posi ti ve arti f act to the rea
f rom the ACPM wi thout the denuder i n OC meas
([OC]wi thout Denuder - [OC]wi th Denuder )/[OC]wi thout D
Co-variation of EC Concentration
in the Spring of 2001
Standard variable
8
Rishiri
Sado
6
4
2
0
-2
Standard variable
4/1
8
4/11
4/21
5/1
5/11
5/21
6/1
Hachijo
Chichi-jima
6
4
2
0
-2
4/1
4/11
4/21
5/1
5/11
5/21
6/1
Uno et al., in press, JGR
Effect of Biomass Burning
Assuming nss-SO42- from biomass burning is negligible compared with
fossil fuel combusion
[EC]measured = [EC]fossil + [EC]biomass
[EC]fossil
= [EC/ nss-SO42- ] Episode 1, 2, 4 x [nss-SO42- ]measured
[EC]biomass = [EC]measured - [EC]fossil
29
4/
27
4/
25
4/
23
4/
21
4/
19
4/
17
4/
15
4/
13
0
4/
4
10
11
2
4
6
8
23
nss-SO
Conc. µ
( g/m )
4/
0
0.5
4/
9
0
1
4/
7
0.5
1.5
4/
5
1
biomass
fossil fuel
4/
3
1.5
2
4/
1
Episode1
Episode2
Episode4.17
Episode3
Episode4
EC Conc. (µgC/m3)
EC Conc. (µgC/m
3
)
2
58-71% of OC and 66-76% of EC are contributed by biomass
burning during Episodes at Rishiri
8
Rishiri
6
4
2
0
8
Sado
6
4
2
0
8
Hachijo
6
4
2
0
8
TC Conc.(µ gC/m
3
)
TC Conc.(µ gC/m
3
)
TC Conc.(µ gC/m
3
)
TC Conc.(µ gC/m
3
)
Carbonaceous Aerosol Concetrations in the VMAP
Network Through One Year From 2001
Chichi-jima
6
4
2
0
4/1
6/1
8/1
10/1
12/1
2/1
4/1
Co-variation of EC Concentration
in the Summer of 2001
Standard variables
8
Rishiri
Sado
6
4
2
0
-2
7/1
7/11
7/21
8/1
8/11
8/21
9/1
Al and nss-Ca Concentration in the VMAP Network
Rishiri
〔R1〕
8
〔R5〕
3
6
〔R2〕
Coarse Al
〔R4〕
〔R3〕
2
〔H1〕
8
5/30
5/23
5/16
5/9
5/2
4/25
4/18
0
4/11
0
4/4
1
3/28
2
Hachijo
6
Coarse nss-Ca
3
2
4
1
2
5/30
5/23
5/16
5/9
5/2
4/25
4/18
4/11
4/4
0
3/28
0
Chichi-jima
8
3
6
2
4
1
2
5/30
5/23
5/16
5/9
5/2
4/25
4/18
4/11
4/4
0
3/28
0
nss-Ca Conc. [μg/m3]
Al Conc. [μg/m3]
4
4
Size Distribution and Variability of Enrichment Factor at Rishiri
1
1 .5
1
Enrichment Factors
AlCoarse/AlTotal
0 .9
0 .8
0 .7
0 .5
Coarse Fe
0
0 .6
〔R1 〕
〔R2 〕
〔R3 〕
〔R4 〕
〔R5 〕
〔R1 〕 〔R2 〕 〔R3 〕 〔R4 〕 〔R5 〕
C a Enrichm ent Factors
Comparison of Enrichment Factors of Ca in the Sources and
Aerosols at Rishiri an Hachijo
2 .5
2 .0
1 .5
1 .0
Mongolia
Junggar
Desert
0 .5
Mu- us Desert
Tengger
Desert
Takla Makan-Gobi
Takla Makan Desert
China
Ocher Plateau
Takla M akan
- G abi
O cher
Plateau
R ishiri
(〔R1〕除く)
H achijo H achijo〔b〕
(〔H1〕除く)
[Kanamori et al., 1991]
Atmospheric Al Concentration over East Asia
0
Beijing
Takla Makan
XiAn
Takla M akan
B eijing(M ar.)
Hong Kong
X iA n(spring)
H ong K ong
S ingapore
Singapore
[Makra et al., 2002]
[Yin et al., 2003]
[Ho et al., 2003]
[Orlic et al., 1999]
[Zhang et al., 2002]
1000
A l C onc. [ng/ m 3 ]
2000 3000 4000
5000
6000
Atmospheric Al Concentration Around Japan
Results of VMAP observations
Rishiri
Okushiri
0
R ishiri
O kushiri
Wajima
W ajim a
Isum o
Isumo
Hachijo
H achijo
H achijo
C hichi- jim a
Onna
Chichi- jima
C hichi- jim a
O nna
[Tsunogai et al., 1985] spring period 1981 and 1982
1000
A l C onc.[ng/ m 3 ]
2000
3000
4000
The 2002 IOC Western Pacific Cruise
Shemya
Western N. Pac
Over the North Pacific
Central N. Pac
Midway
Subtropical N. Pac
Oahu
Results of IOC2 0 0 2 Cruise
Enewetak
Fanning
A l C onc [ng/ m 3 ]
400
300
200
100
0
c.
c.
N . P a tra l N . P a
n
r
e
C en
W e st
ya
c.
S he m ic al N . P a
ro p
S ub t
M id w
ay
O ahu
[Uematsu et al.,1983]
e ta
E n ew
k
F a nn
in g
Event 1: May 4~8
Event 2: May 12~14
Event 3: May 17~19
May 16-17 2002
0.0
IOC28
IOC27
IOC26
IOC25
1.2
0.8
0.6
0.6
0.4
0.4
0.2
0.2
0.0
NO3- conc. [µg m -3]
CoarseNO3-
IOC24
IOC23
IOC22
IOC21
IOC20
FineAl
IOC19
IOC18
IOC17
IOC16
CoarseAl
IOC15
IOC14
IOC13
IOC12
1.0
IOC11
IOC10
IOC9
IOC8
IOC7
IOC6
IOC5
IOC4
IOC3
IOC2
IOC1
Al conc. [µg m -3]
Aluminum and Nitrate
1.0
FineNO3-
0.8
2.5
0.8
2.0
0.6
1.5
0.4
1.0
0.2
0.5
0.0
0.0
IOC9
IOC8
IOC7
IOC6
IOC5
IOC4
IOC3
IOC2
IOC28
IOC27
IOC26
IOC25
IOC24
IOC23
IOC22
Coarsenss-SO42-
IOC21
IOC20
IOC19
IOC18
IOC17
IOC16
FineAl
IOC15
IOC14
IOC13
CoarseAl
IOC12
IOC11
1.2
nss-SO42- conc. [µg m -3]
1.0
IOC1
IOC10
Al conc. [µg m -3]
Aluminum and Sulfate
3.0
Fine nss-SO42-
Average Concentrations of Each Event
Al
2+
nss-Ca
-
NO3
2-
nss-SO4
-3
Coarse Fine Coarse Fine Coarse Fine Coarse Fine
ng m
Event 1
762 108
125 106
635 295
269 2354
Fine (%)
12
46
32
90
Event 2
263
43
10
53
221 156
143 1739
Fine (%)
14
84
41
92
Event 3
105
65
32
49
330 110
265 1861
Fine (%)
38
60
25
88
Normal
39
28
6
20
123
41
104
523
42
77
25
83
Fine (%)
Midway Is.
Prospero et al., J. G. R. (2002)
SO4
NO3
Mineral
MSA
Nat-SO4
Anth-SO4
Anth-SO4 in Mar.
With Dust.
65% of Total SO4
Nat-SO4 in May
75% of Total SO4
NO3
NO3 background
conc. =0.20µg m-3
Sakai, Osaka: (1986-1995): Ito and Mizohata (2000)
nssSO4: From 4.0 to 5.6 µg m-3 (x 1.4)
NO3: From 2.16 to 2.57 µg m-3 (x 1.2)
Midway: (1981-1995): Prospero et al., (2002)
Anthro SO4: From 0.24 to 0.65 µg m-3 (x 2.7)
Total NO3: From 0.38 to 0.58 µg m-3 (x 1.5)
Japan to Midway:
nssSO4: 6%-12% remained at Midway
NO3:18%-23%
What we need from modeling studies
•Identify new emission sources for aerosols
•How to model sporadic events
•Volcanic emission and its effects
•Nitrate distribution and its deposition flux
•Biogenic sulfur emission from sea surface
•Long term trends of aerosol distribution
•Reproduce rain events
•Regional Models vs Global Models
地上天気図
Case1
Case2
●
●
●
●
●
●
7/8
7/11
7/12
Case3
Case1 利尻島, 佐渡島 低濃度
Case2 利尻島, 佐渡島 高濃度
●
●
●
Case3 利尻島 低濃度
佐渡島 高濃度
●
7/31
8/1
3.炭素質エアロソルの発生源
50
SIB
OKH
PAC-JPN
40
CHI
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ÅB
30
Frequency (%)
Latitude (ºN)
<利尻島>
30
120
130
20
10
SIB
CHI
140 0 OKH 150 Trajectory
160
Pathway
Longitude (ºE)
PAC-JPN
規格化濃度(N): N = (mi - Mi) / Mi
(mi: 各セクターの成分iの平均濃度, Mi: 成分Iの平均濃度)
利尻島における輸送経路と濃度の関係
Normalized Conc.
1
0.5
1
OC
0.5
0
0
-0.5
-0.5
OKH
OKH
SIB
SIB
CHI
CHI
P
AC-JP N
PAC-JPN
Normalized Conc.
-1
1
0.5
EC
OKH
-1
0.5
Particle Number
0
OKH
SIB
SIB
CHI
CHI
P AC-JP N
PAC-JPN
O3
0
-0.5
-1
OKH
OKH
SIB
SIB
CHI
CHI
T raject ory P athway
P AC-JP N
PAC-JPN
Trajectory Pathway
-0.5
OKH
OKH
SIB
SIB
CHI
CHI
T raject ory P athway
P AC-JP N
PAC-JPN
Trajectory Pathway
<八丈島>
40
JPN
CHI-JPN
PAC
30
80
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ÅB
60
Frequency (%)
S-CHI
20
40
20
120
130
0
PAC
140
150
Longitude (ºE)
160
CHI-JPN
JPN
Trajectory Pathway
S-CHI
八丈島における輸送経路と濃度の関係
Normalized Conc.
Normalized Conc.
1
0.5
1
OC
0.5
0
0
-0.5
-0.5
P AC
PAC
CHI-JP N
CHI-JPN
P AC
PAC
JPN
JPN
-1
-1
1
0.5
0.5
Particle Number
CHI-JP N
CHI-JPN
JPN
JPN
CHI-JP N
CHI-JPN
JPN
JPN
O3
0
0
-0.5
EC
P AC
PAC
CHI-JP N
CHI-JPN
JPN
JPN
-0.5
-1
Trajectory Pathway
P AC
PAC
Trajectory Pathway
0.20
EC = 0.21NO 3 + 0.06
R2 = 0.49
EC [µg m-3]
0.15
0.10
EC= 0.04SO 42- + 0.04
R2 = 0.82
0.05
FineNO3-
Fine nss-SO42-
N
S
0.00
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
Fine NO 3-, SO42- [µg m -3]
3.0
Total Soluble nss-Ca neq [neq m-3]
20
y = 0.14 x - 1.05
R2 = 0.65
16
12
8
4
0
0
20
Total Acid (Bulk NO
40
3
60
2-
+ Bulk nss-SO 4 ) [neq m
80
-3
]
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