Thanks to: ELENA: CERN Directorate and An Upgrade to the CERN – A&B Department Antiproton Decelerator (AD) at CERN and especially to the authors of the feasibility study: a proposal to the SPSC M.-E. Angoletta, M. Barnes, A. Beuret, P. Belochitskii, the AD J. Borburgh,from P. Bourquin, M.user Buzio,community D. Cornuet, T. Eriksson, T. Fowler, M. Hori, E. Mahner, S. Maury, D. Möhl, J. Monteiro, S. Pasinelli, F. Pedersen, U. Raich, L. Soby, P. Strubin, G. Tranquille, andbyT. Zickler presented Walter Oelert Research Center Jülich, Germany 29. September 2009 Historical remark Workshop on Physics at LEAR with Low Energy Cooled Antiprotons Erice, May 9 – 16, 1982 Workshop on Physics at LEAR with Low Energy Cooled Antiprotons Erice, May 9 – 16, 1982 first 11 antihydrogen atoms 1995 Tour de France vs. race around the town of Jülich H and p He precision spectroscopy gravitational force we are asking the SPSC to help us for a participation in the Tour de France CERN-SPSC-2009-026 (SPSC-P-338) ELENA: An Upgrade to the Antiproton Decelerator 210 physicists CERN-SPSC-2009-026 (SPSC-P-338) 57 M. Doser ELENA is a small decelerator which: a) slows the AD antiprotons to 100 keV b) cools them via integrated electron cooling c) delivers the p‘s to the various experiments via electrostatic beam lines input acceptance of ELENA matches the AD emittance electron cooling guarantees for high quality of the beam ELENA can be located within the present AD hall with minor interference to the experimental operation But after all: WHY ELENA ??? structure of matter / of antimatter Motivation to produce and study cold antihydrogen • CPT invariance high precision spectroscopy • gravitation matter - antimatter CPT invariance fundamental feature of local relativistic quantum field theories gravitational force between matter and antimatter is essentially unknown even in its sign General Motivations Test CPT invariance in lepton and baryon system a) local, Lorentz-invariant quantum field theory CPT invariance b) Need extensions to the standard model to get a CPT violation e.g. R. Blum, V.A. Kostelecky, N. Russell*, Phys. Rev. D 57, 3932 (1998) Baryon-Antibaryon asymmetry in the Universe is NOT understood Standard explanation: alternate explanation: CP violation CPT violation violation of baryon number violation of baryon number thermodynamic non-equilibrium thermodynamic equilibrium CPT in String Theory no CPT theorem in general get CPT theorem the limit of a quantum field theory Makes sense to investigate these fundamental symmetries in the few places that we can hope to do so very precisely. * see invited talk by Russell at the LEAP-05 conference, please 1999/2000 May 2009 AD-2: ATRAP Penning-Ioffe trap, 1.2 K plasmas, Lyman-a source AD-3: ASACUSA spectroscopy p He atoms, CODATA, MUSASHI, hyperfine structure AD-4: ACE Contributing to cancer therapy AD-5: ALPHA Magnetic multipole trap for trapping H 1999/2000 AD-6: AEGIS Gravitational interaction to 1 % Proposal PAX Spin-dependence of p-p interaction LoI Acceleration of H in the gravity field of the Earth LoI Double-strangeness production with p LoI May 2009 p atoms X-ray from selected elements with low Z Klaus Jungmann at the workshop “New Opportunities in the Physics Landscape at CERN“ 1 6 : 4 5 Antihydrogen Potential and Challenges for CERN'S Unique Low Energy Antiprotons ATRAP Gerald Gabrielse (Harvard University) CERN not only leads the world in "high energy" physics. It has long also distinguished itself by pursuing fundamental particle physics at lower energy scales. CERN introduced the world's lowest energy antiprotons at 5 MeV. Antihydrogen is being formed at the AD. Antihydrogen spectroscopy will provide comparisons of antihydrogen and hydrogen at much higher precisions. The lowest-ever (1.2 K) electron and positron temperatures recently realized …….. are needed to realize the goal of trapping antihydrogen atoms in magnetic traps that have been demonstrated at the AD. The future is challenging and exciting. The long term goal, for which the AD was constructed, is extremely accurate laser spectroscopy of antihydrogen atoms. Steady progress continues on the needed laser systems needed for cooling and spectroscopy, and a second generation of magnetic trap is under construction. An upgraded AD, able to deliver many more antiprotons at lower energies to traps, would speed the progress. 1 7 : 0 0 measurement of the gravitational interaction of antihydrogen AEGIS Daniel Comparat (Lab. Aimé Cotton, Orsay) The experimental program of AD-6 has been described as part of the documents submitted to the SPSC. In those documents, this program extends at least to 2013, which should allow us to achieve the main physics goal of the experiment - a measurement to 1% of the gravitational interaction of antimatter. Our program however is broader and longer-term than that. The attached time-line of the experiment covers the activities we intend to carry out over the next decade. alternative antiproton sources at low energies? not within the next decade FLAIR at FAIR at GSI FLAIR hall TSR Heidelberg Astrid - Aarhus CRYRING Stockholm Challenges remain to be solved for the low-energy antiproton beams: 1. Intensity limit to low energy bunch compression 2. Instrumentation for low energies and intensities 3. Vacuum requirements at low energies 4. Design and shielding of beam transport lines 5. Electron cooling Operation of ELENA will provide invaluable opportunities for the development of methods to be incorporated into improved low-energy deceleration rings of the future ELENA‘s Influence on the experimental progress P(p) = 100 MeV/c ( E(p) = 5 MeV ) spill : ~ 3 . 107 every ~ 100 s spill length ~ 100 ns ~ 3 x 107 5.3 MeV antiprotons/ ~ 100 sec ~4 keV antiprotons/ ~ 100 sec ~ 3 x 107 ~ 1 x 105 ATRAPs very best value: 1.3x105 2.99 x 107 antiprotons lost efficiency 3 x 10-3 ~ 3 x 107 100 keV antiprotons/ ~ 100 sec ~ 2.5 x 107 ~4 keV antiprotons/ ~ 100 sec ~ 1 x 107 2 x 107 antiprotons lost efficiency 3 x 10-1 ELENA efficiency increase: factor ~ 100 5.3 MeV antiprotons/ ~ 100 sec 50 - 120 keV antiprotons/ ~ 100 sec ~ 3 x 107 RFQD <10 keV antiprotons/ ~ 100 sec ~ 1 x 106 ~ 7.5 x 106 2.9 x 107 antiprotons lost efficiency 3 x 10-2 ~ 3 x 107 100 keV antiprotons/ ~ 100 sec ~ 2.5 x 107 ~4 keV antiprotons/ ~ 100 sec ~ 1 x 107 2 x 107 antiprotons lost efficiency 3 x 10-1 ELENA efficiency increase: factor ~ 10 bunched beam: 1.3 m / 300 : 8 p´ns coasting beam: 2.2 x 10 s 1.1 x 107 p´s 4 bunches, each: 1.3 m / 300 ns: and 1.1 x 107 p´s 4.4 x 107 p´s to one experiment 1.1 x 107 p´s to four different experiments Experiment IV Experiment III Experiment II Experiment I 1.1 x 107 p´s to four different experiments Experiment IV four experiments served simultaneously 24 hours/day Experiment III specific arguments of the experiments Experiment II Experiment I ATRAP: currently using about 5 x 10 6 trapped p/day additional experiment 4 x 10 6 trapped p/day with ELENA: 500 x 10 6 p/day with ELENA and shared beam distribution mode more trials and 10 x more precise per time unit ASACUSA MC simulations teach: ELENA beam with higher intensity and lower emittance 10-fold increase in synthesized p He atoms and 10-fold lower back-ground large improvement on both statistical error and signal/noise ratio. ACE ELENA will continue to allow the extraction of higher energy beams, as needed by ACE Nano-dosimetry experiments and DNA level damage in individual cells will become possible ALPHA Expected number of p increase immediate impact on statistcally limited experiments, promising but at AD not viable experiments will become possible with ELENA especially in view of promising p + e+ mixing experiments to produce trappable antihydrogen AEGIS ELENA will allow to reduce the beam time to scales which make the necessary control of parameters of the AEGIS apparatus (stability < 1 m, temperature 100 mK) more feasible New Experiments Most of new experiments on the horizon will profit from ELENA but would need slow extraction Measurement of the Spin-Dependence of the p-p Interaction internal AD experiment, but if ELENA provides higher luminosity easier to accomodate new users A Measurement of the Acceleration of Antihydrogen in the Gravitational Field of the Earth if ELENA provides higher luminosity easier to accomodate new users Double-Strangeness Production with Antiprotons at the AD-ring requires a slow extraction of the low-energy antiproton beam Antiprotonic Atom X-ray Studies at AD from Selected Elements with low Z requires a slow extraction of the low-energy antiproton beam Slow extraction not foreseen in the presented feasibility study costs and space in principle possible but new design study necessary other options are thinkable, but here not intended since i) asking too much might kill a good suggestion and ii) a good opportunity for FLAIR MUSASHI captures, cools and extracts antiprotons Press release on MUSASHI: ~ 106 antiprotons / 6 minutes 独立行政法人理化学研究所（野依良治理事長）と国立大学法人東京大 = 学（小宮山宏総長）の研究グループは、2.5テスラという強い磁場の中 2800 antiprotons / second で大量の反陽子の塊を捕捉し、その形状や密度を制御する方法を見い だしました。これにより、反物質研究の鍵となる「反水素原子※1（水 would improve with ELENA 素原子の反物質）」の“原材料”を制御することができるようになりま and shot by shot した。この成果は、東京大学大学院総合文化研究科広域科学専攻黒田 distribution mode to 直史助教（元理化学研究所協力研究員）、理研基幹研究所山崎原子物 < ~ 105 antiprotons / second 理研究室の山崎泰規主任研究員（東京大学大学院総合文化研究科広域 科学専攻教授）らの研究成果です。 ビックバンから始まったと考えられている私たちの宇宙には、物質 however, と反物質が等量に存在するはずです。しかし、広く宇宙を見渡すと、“ antiprotons in low keV range 物質”ばかりからなっているように見えます。この不思議な現状を理解 and するため、研究グループは、反水素原子を実験室で作り出し、これを complexity of operation 捕捉して、その性質を詳細に観測し、水素原子との違い（CPT対称性 ※2）を明らかにしようという研究を進めてきました。本研究では、反 水素原子の主要“原料”である反陽子を真空中に大量にため込むととも will not satisfy に、ため込んだ反陽子の雲を自在に操作することができる手法を確立 the needs of general users, しました。これまでは、反陽子をため込むことはできても、その空間 is not an open facility, 分布をコントロールすることは至難の技でした。従って、今回の成果 to be discussed は、ほぼすべての低エネルギー反陽子研究にとって待ち望まれた技術 from case to case といえます。 modifications to the experiments I shielded electrostatic beam lines < 100 Gaus modifications to the experiments energy degrader number of trapped antiprotons II replace metal antiproton parameters of steering elements ELENA‘s Design and Construction today 9.2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 ELENA‘s Funding at CERN only 4.736 kCHF 37.9 MY elsewhere 5.263 kCHF 17.2 MY available 220 kCHF 2.9 MY Make ELENA a project at CERN with a project leader, please Conclusions There is a clear consensus among the AD experiments that further large improvements can only be achieved using a cooled antiproton beam from ELENA Klaus Jungmann at the workshop “New Opportunities in the Physics Landscape at CERN“ Thanks to CERN`s unique low-energy antiproton facilities, there is an important and flourishing scientific program that requires more antiprotons than AD can provide today. There are not enough antiprotons for the scientific program that is already approved at CERN. The low-energy antiproton and antihydrogen community has reached a clear consensus upon the ELENA upgrade to the AD. A substantially increased number of antiprotons will enable to make more rapid progress and to achieve much more sensitive and precise results. H and p He precision spectroscopy gravitational force Nuclear Physics News 19(03) 2009 pp 5-13 Arthur Schuster Nature, August 18, 1898, p 367 …………..If there is negative electricity, why not negative gold, as yellow and valuable as our own, with the same boiling point and identical spectral lines; different only in so far that if brought down to us it would rise up into space with an acceleration of 981. ………………………………… if it ever existed on our earth, it would long have been repelled by it and expelled from it. Thank you for your attention and thank you for your consideration, time, support and help which we need to get ELENA approved for good and fundamental physics. We will do our best to face the challenge of racing Tour de France.