Thanks to:
ELENA:
CERN Directorate
and
An
Upgrade
to the
CERN – A&B Department
Antiproton Decelerator
(AD) at CERN
and
especially to the authors of the feasibility study:
a proposal to the SPSC
M.-E. Angoletta, M. Barnes, A. Beuret, P. Belochitskii,
the AD
J. Borburgh,from
P. Bourquin,
M.user
Buzio,community
D. Cornuet, T. Eriksson,
T. Fowler, M. Hori, E. Mahner, S. Maury, D. Möhl, J. Monteiro,
S. Pasinelli, F. Pedersen, U. Raich, L. Soby, P. Strubin,
G. Tranquille,
andbyT. Zickler
presented
Walter Oelert
Research Center Jülich,
Germany
29. September 2009
Historical remark
Workshop on Physics
at LEAR with Low Energy
Cooled Antiprotons
Erice, May 9 – 16, 1982
Workshop on Physics
at LEAR with Low Energy
Cooled Antiprotons
Erice, May 9 – 16, 1982
first 11
antihydrogen
atoms
1995
Tour de France
vs.
race around the town of Jülich
H
and p He
precision spectroscopy
gravitational force
we are asking the SPSC to help us
for a participation in the
Tour de France
CERN-SPSC-2009-026 (SPSC-P-338)
ELENA:
An Upgrade to the Antiproton Decelerator
210 physicists
CERN-SPSC-2009-026 (SPSC-P-338)
57
M. Doser
ELENA is a small decelerator which:
a) slows the AD antiprotons to 100 keV
b) cools them via integrated electron cooling
c) delivers the p‘s to the various experiments via electrostatic beam lines
input acceptance of
ELENA matches
the AD emittance
electron cooling
guarantees for
high quality of the beam
ELENA can be located
within the present
AD hall
with minor interference
to the experimental
operation
But after all:
WHY ELENA ???
structure
of matter / of antimatter
Motivation
to produce and study cold antihydrogen
• CPT invariance
high precision
spectroscopy
• gravitation
matter - antimatter
CPT invariance
fundamental feature
of local relativistic
quantum field theories
gravitational force
between matter and antimatter
is essentially unknown
even in its sign
General Motivations
Test CPT invariance in lepton and baryon system
a) local, Lorentz-invariant quantum field theory  CPT invariance
b) Need extensions to the standard model to get a CPT violation
e.g. R. Blum, V.A. Kostelecky, N. Russell*, Phys. Rev. D 57, 3932 (1998)
Baryon-Antibaryon asymmetry in the Universe is NOT understood
Standard explanation:
alternate explanation:
CP violation
CPT violation
violation of baryon number
violation of baryon number
thermodynamic non-equilibrium
thermodynamic equilibrium
CPT in String Theory
no CPT theorem in general
get CPT theorem  the limit of a quantum field theory
Makes sense to investigate these fundamental symmetries
in the few places that we can hope to do so very precisely.
* see invited talk by Russell at the LEAP-05 conference, please
1999/2000
May 2009
AD-2: ATRAP
Penning-Ioffe trap, 1.2 K plasmas, Lyman-a source
AD-3: ASACUSA
spectroscopy p He atoms, CODATA, MUSASHI,
hyperfine structure
AD-4: ACE
Contributing to cancer therapy
AD-5: ALPHA
Magnetic multipole trap for trapping H
1999/2000
AD-6: AEGIS
Gravitational interaction to 1 %
Proposal PAX
Spin-dependence of p-p interaction
LoI
Acceleration of H in the gravity field of the Earth
LoI
Double-strangeness production with p
LoI
May 2009
p atoms X-ray from selected elements with low Z
Klaus Jungmann at the workshop “New Opportunities in the Physics Landscape at CERN“
1
6
:
4
5
Antihydrogen Potential and
Challenges for CERN'S Unique
Low Energy Antiprotons
ATRAP
Gerald Gabrielse (Harvard University)
CERN not only leads the world in "high energy" physics.
It has long also distinguished itself by pursuing fundamental particle physics
at lower energy scales.
CERN introduced the world's lowest energy antiprotons at 5 MeV.
Antihydrogen is being formed at the AD.
Antihydrogen spectroscopy will provide comparisons of antihydrogen and hydrogen at much higher
precisions.
The lowest-ever (1.2 K) electron and positron temperatures recently realized …….. are needed to
realize the goal of trapping antihydrogen atoms in magnetic traps that have been demonstrated at
the AD.
The future is challenging and exciting. The long term goal, for which the AD was constructed, is
extremely accurate laser spectroscopy of antihydrogen atoms. Steady progress continues on the
needed laser systems needed for cooling and spectroscopy, and a second generation of magnetic
trap is under construction.
An upgraded AD, able to deliver many more antiprotons
at lower energies to traps, would speed the progress.
1
7
:
0
0
measurement of the gravitational
interaction of antihydrogen
AEGIS
Daniel Comparat (Lab. Aimé Cotton, Orsay)
The experimental program of AD-6 has been described as part of the
documents submitted to the SPSC.
In those documents, this program extends at least to 2013,
which should allow us to achieve the main physics goal of the experiment
- a measurement to 1% of the gravitational interaction of antimatter.
Our program however is broader and longer-term than that.
The attached time-line of the experiment covers
the activities we intend to carry out over the next decade.
alternative antiproton sources
at low energies?
not within the next decade
FLAIR at FAIR at GSI
FLAIR
hall
TSR
Heidelberg
Astrid - Aarhus
CRYRING
Stockholm
Challenges remain to be solved
for the low-energy
antiproton beams:
1. Intensity limit to low energy bunch compression
2. Instrumentation for low energies and intensities
3. Vacuum requirements at low energies
4. Design and shielding of beam transport lines
5. Electron cooling
Operation of ELENA will provide invaluable
opportunities for the development of
methods to be incorporated into improved
low-energy deceleration rings
of the future
ELENA‘s Influence on the experimental progress
P(p) = 100 MeV/c
( E(p) = 5 MeV )
spill : ~ 3 . 107 every ~ 100 s
spill length ~ 100 ns
~ 3 x 107
5.3 MeV
antiprotons/
~ 100 sec
~4 keV
antiprotons/
~ 100 sec
~ 3 x 107
~ 1 x 105
ATRAPs very best value:
1.3x105
2.99 x 107 antiprotons lost
 efficiency 3 x 10-3
~ 3 x 107
100 keV
antiprotons/
~ 100 sec
~ 2.5 x 107
~4 keV
antiprotons/
~ 100 sec
~ 1 x 107
2 x 107 antiprotons lost
 efficiency 3 x 10-1
ELENA efficiency increase: factor ~ 100
5.3 MeV
antiprotons/
~ 100 sec
50 - 120 keV
antiprotons/
~ 100 sec
~ 3 x 107
RFQD
<10 keV
antiprotons/
~ 100 sec
~ 1 x 106
~ 7.5 x 106
2.9 x 107 antiprotons lost
 efficiency 3 x 10-2
~ 3 x 107
100 keV
antiprotons/
~ 100 sec
~ 2.5 x 107
~4 keV
antiprotons/
~ 100 sec
~ 1 x 107
2 x 107 antiprotons lost
 efficiency 3 x 10-1
ELENA efficiency increase: factor ~ 10
bunched beam: 1.3 m / 300
:
8 p´ns
coasting beam: 2.2
x
10
s
1.1 x 107 p´s
4 bunches, each: 1.3 m / 300 ns:
and
1.1 x 107 p´s
4.4 x 107 p´s to one experiment
1.1 x 107 p´s
to four different experiments
Experiment IV
Experiment III
Experiment II
Experiment I
1.1 x 107 p´s
to four different experiments
Experiment IV
four experiments served
simultaneously
24 hours/day
Experiment III
specific arguments
of the experiments
Experiment II
Experiment I
ATRAP:
currently using about 5 x 10 6 trapped p/day  additional experiment  4 x 10 6 trapped p/day
with ELENA: 500 x 10 6 p/day
with ELENA and shared beam distribution mode  more trials and 10 x more precise per time unit
ASACUSA
MC simulations teach: ELENA beam with higher intensity and lower emittance 
10-fold increase in synthesized p He atoms and 10-fold lower back-ground 
large improvement on both statistical error and signal/noise ratio.
ACE
ELENA will continue to allow the extraction of higher energy beams, as needed by ACE
Nano-dosimetry experiments and DNA level damage in individual cells will become possible
ALPHA
Expected number of p increase  immediate impact on statistcally limited experiments,
promising but at AD not viable experiments will become possible with ELENA especially in view
of promising p + e+ mixing experiments to produce trappable antihydrogen
AEGIS
ELENA will allow to reduce the beam time to scales which make the necessary control
of parameters of the AEGIS apparatus (stability < 1 m, temperature 100 mK) more feasible
New Experiments
Most of new experiments on the horizon will profit from ELENA but would need slow extraction
Measurement of the Spin-Dependence of the p-p Interaction
internal AD experiment, but if ELENA provides higher luminosity  easier to accomodate new users
A Measurement of the Acceleration of Antihydrogen in the
Gravitational Field of the Earth
if ELENA provides higher luminosity  easier to accomodate new users
Double-Strangeness Production with Antiprotons at the AD-ring
requires a slow extraction of the low-energy antiproton beam
Antiprotonic Atom X-ray Studies at AD from Selected Elements with low Z
requires a slow extraction of the low-energy antiproton beam
Slow extraction
not foreseen in the presented feasibility study  costs and space
in principle possible but  new design study necessary
other options are thinkable, but here not intended since
i) asking too much might kill a good suggestion
and
ii) a good opportunity for FLAIR
MUSASHI
captures, cools and extracts antiprotons

Press release on MUSASHI:
~ 106 antiprotons / 6 minutes
独立行政法人理化学研究所(野依良治理事長)と国立大学法人東京大
=
学(小宮山宏総長)の研究グループは、2.5テスラという強い磁場の中
2800 antiprotons / second
で大量の反陽子の塊を捕捉し、その形状や密度を制御する方法を見い
だしました。これにより、反物質研究の鍵となる「反水素原子※1(水
would improve with ELENA
素原子の反物質)」の“原材料”を制御することができるようになりま
and shot by shot
した。この成果は、東京大学大学院総合文化研究科広域科学専攻黒田
distribution mode to
直史助教(元理化学研究所協力研究員)、理研基幹研究所山崎原子物
< ~ 105 antiprotons / second
理研究室の山崎泰規主任研究員(東京大学大学院総合文化研究科広域
科学専攻教授)らの研究成果です。
ビックバンから始まったと考えられている私たちの宇宙には、物質
however,
と反物質が等量に存在するはずです。しかし、広く宇宙を見渡すと、“
antiprotons in low keV range
物質”ばかりからなっているように見えます。この不思議な現状を理解
and
するため、研究グループは、反水素原子を実験室で作り出し、これを
complexity of operation
捕捉して、その性質を詳細に観測し、水素原子との違い(CPT対称性
※2)を明らかにしようという研究を進めてきました。本研究では、反

水素原子の主要“原料”である反陽子を真空中に大量にため込むととも
will not satisfy
に、ため込んだ反陽子の雲を自在に操作することができる手法を確立
the needs of general users,
しました。これまでは、反陽子をため込むことはできても、その空間
is not an open facility,
分布をコントロールすることは至難の技でした。従って、今回の成果
to be discussed
は、ほぼすべての低エネルギー反陽子研究にとって待ち望まれた技術
from case to case
といえます。
modifications
to the experiments
I
shielded electrostatic beam lines
< 100 Gaus
modifications
to the experiments
energy degrader
number of trapped
antiprotons
II
replace metal antiproton
parameters of steering elements
ELENA‘s Design and Construction
today
9.2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
ELENA‘s Funding
at CERN only
4.736 kCHF 37.9 MY
elsewhere
5.263 kCHF 17.2 MY
available
220 kCHF 2.9 MY
Make ELENA
a project at CERN
with a project leader,
please
Conclusions
There is a clear consensus among the AD experiments
that further large improvements
can only be achieved using a cooled antiproton beam from ELENA
Klaus Jungmann at the workshop “New Opportunities in the Physics Landscape at CERN“
Thanks to CERN`s unique low-energy antiproton facilities,
there is an important and flourishing scientific program
that requires more antiprotons than AD can provide today.
There are not enough antiprotons for the scientific program
that is already approved at CERN.
The low-energy antiproton and antihydrogen community has
reached a clear consensus upon the ELENA upgrade to the AD.
A substantially increased number of antiprotons will enable
to make more rapid progress and to achieve much more
sensitive and precise results.
H
and p He
precision spectroscopy
gravitational force
Nuclear Physics News 19(03) 2009 pp 5-13
Arthur Schuster
Nature, August 18, 1898, p 367
…………..If there is negative electricity,
why not negative gold,
as yellow and valuable as our own,
with the same boiling point and
identical
spectral lines;
different only in so far that if brought
down to us it would rise up into space
with an acceleration of 981.
………………………………… if it ever
existed on our earth, it would long have
been repelled by it and expelled from it.
Thank you for your attention
and
thank you for your
consideration, time, support and help
which we need to get ELENA approved
for good and fundamental physics.
We will do our best to face the challenge
of racing Tour de France.
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