英語科教育法 I. II
教職科目
学習者中心・コミュニカテイブな外国語の授業
A Learner-centered Communicative Language Teaching
1
学習者中心のコミュニカテイブな授業の意義
外国語・言語文化教育=人間教育=国際理解=平和教育
自分の意見を目標言語で世界へ発信
言語化・コミュニケーションは思考力・判断力を高める
言語の学習
→目標言語習得への転換
多様なコミュニカテイブな仮説理論(アプローチ)
を活用した学習者中心の授業実践
2
学習者中心の授業の基本哲学
教師の情熱
愛情・LOVE
Humanistic Approach
授業は知識・
情報・感動の
共有
Teaching is
sharing.
授業は教師と
学習者の
共同事業
Teaching is
a joint project.
教師の
自己啓発
Teaching is
SelfDevelopment
3
A learner-centered Communicative and
Interactive Language Class実現の方略
Language Home
Low Affective Filter
低い情意フィルター
Communicative Tasks
コミュニカテイブなタスク
Integrated Current Communicative Approaches
統合されたコミュニカテイブ・アプローチ
4
学習者中心のコミュニカティブな外国語の授業
A Learner-centered Communicative Language Class
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自らの考えや意見を目標言語で発信し、世界
の人々との議論に参加できる外国語運用能
力を育成する方略:
1 言語学習から言語習得への発想転換
2 教師中心から学習中心の授業への転換
3 教師側の意識改革 (Language Home)
4 その結果として具体的に教室内の教師と
学習者双方の態度変容が必要
5
世界や社会の問題に対して自分の意見を目標言語で
発表することの意義
(中級・上級英語スピーチ・コ ミュニケーションクラス200名対象)1997-2000
140
120
100
80
60
Very Much
Yes
Don' know
No
40
20
0
6
外国語の授業における4ENの力
励まし、知識、技能、感動を共有
Encourage
Enjoy
Enrich
Enlighten
7
外国語教育における 4 EN
学習者中心のLanguage Home

4EN
の必要性
 Encourage (常に励まし、自信を持たせる)
 Enjoy (学習者が共に参加する喜び・楽しさ)
 Enrich(内容・活動→豊かさ・新鮮さ・感動)
 Enlighten(啓蒙・触発→意識革命→行動)
8
Real World Context
現実世界に近い言語環境

Classroom activities should parallel the ‘real world’
as closely as possible (Widdowson 1987) . 授業で
の活動が現実世界に近いこと
Situationaly Realistic 現実的・臨場感
 Contextually Rich
文脈が豊か
 Meaningful Content 意味のある内容
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Classroom activities should parallel the ‘real world’
as closely as possible (Widdowson 1987)
9
Reading授業の発想転換
訳読法からReading Skill養成への転換
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Reading in English
1 Paragraph Reading から paragraph Writing
Topic Sentence (main idea)
Supporting Details
Concluding Sentence
Vocabularies and Structures
2. Intensive Reading and Extensive Reading
* Top-down Process for Reading
* Bottom-up Process for Reading
* Interactive Process for Reading
4 Schema Theory (background knowledge)
(Formal Schemata/Content Schemata)
5 Reading Assignment for Pleasure Reading
10
Communicative Task
学習者が達成感を共有できるコミュニカテイブな課題
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Goals
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(授業目的)
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Input
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(入力)
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Activities
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(言語活動)
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Teacher role
(教師の役割)
TASKS
(課題)
Learner role
(学習者の役割)
Settings
(授業環境)
A framework for analyzing communicative tasks
(Nunan: 1999)
11
Communicative Task

A piece of classroom work which involves learners
in comprehending, manipulating, producing or
interacting in the target language while their
attention is principally focused on meaning rather
than form.
(Nunan: 1989)
学習者が目標言語で理解したり、操作したり、表現したり、
相互作用するようにしむける意味内容のある課題・仕事であ
り、学習者は主として言語の形式より意味内容に注目する。
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Rotating Communication, (VTR1)
Summarization and comments
Logical Debate with valid evidence (VTR2)
Oral Presentation (Mini Lecture) (VTR3)
Problem-solving Discussion
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(1) Communicative Tasks の定義
Newnan (1989) defines communicative
task as a piece of classroom work
which involves learners in
comprehending, manipulating,
producing or interacting in the target
language while their attention is
principally focused on meaning rather
than form.
Newnan (1992)
Designing Tasks for the Communicative Classroom
Cambridge University Press)
13
Communicative Tasksの重要性
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Communicative Task とは:
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意味内容のある実際のコミュニケーション場
面を想定し、実際に目標言語を使いながら理
解したり、応用したり、創作したり、相互作用
をするプロセスに学習者が積極的に参加する
コミュニケーションの課題、作業である。
14
Communicative Tasks

Newnan continues that task is a piece
of meaning-focused work involving
learners in comprehending, producing
and /or interacting in the target
language, and that tasks are analyzed
or categorized according to their goals,
input data, activities, settings and roles.
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(2) Communicative Competence
(Canale and Swain 1980)
総合的な言語運用能力
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1 英語の文章構造を理解する能力・語彙力
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(Grammatical Competence)
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2 社会生活を行う上での言語能力
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(Sociolinguistic Competence)
3 談話や文脈を理解する能力
(Discourse Competence)
4 非言語でのコミュニケーションを含む相手とコ
ミュニケーションを図る手段や方略を備える能力
(Strategic Competence)
16
1) Grammatical Competence
 Grammatical
competence refers to
what Chomsky calls linguistic
competence and what Hymes
intends by what is "formally
possible." It is the domain of
grammatical and lexical capacity.
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2) Sociolinguistic Competence
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Sociolinguistic competence refers to an
understanding of the social context in
which communication takes place,
including role relationships, the shared
information of the participants, and the
communicative purpose for their
interaction. ( Ex. It’s cold in this room)
18
3) Discourse Competence
Discourse competence refers to the
interpretation of individual message
elements in terms of their
interconnectedness and of how
meaning is represented in relationship
to the entire discourse or text.
 (Inference in the context)
 (Reading between the lines )
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Discourse Analysis談話分析
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Z Harris 1952 Discourse Analysis
Discourse analysis means the study of Grammar beyond
the sentence.
The analysis of the writer’s intention in the context,
paragraph and conversation.
There are some discourse principles (rules)
There are some prediction and inference followed by the
next words:
Therefore, 議論を深める
In conclusion, 結論を導く
However, 反論
As a matter of fact, 実際的な例
What makes the matter worse, さらなる、悪条件
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Discourse Analysis
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Ex.
1. Do not come any closer, please.
= Do not come to me any further.
2. Kiss me, please.= I would like you to kiss me.
3. Who is it? = Who are you? Who is speaking?
4. Someone in.
= Please do not come in. (in the public toilet)
5. There goes telephone.= Will you get the telephone?
Discourse Competence
It is very hot in this room, isn’t it?
= Could you open the widow?
The story will be different depending on the stress of the
accent.
21
Tom plays football very well, too.
4) Strategic Competence
 Strategic
competence refers to the
coping strategies that
communicators employ to initiate,
terminate, maintain, repair, and
redirect communication.
 (Non-verbal communication)
22
Communicative Language Teaching

Communicative Language Teaching (CLT)は学習
者中心で相互作用があるコミュニカテイブな授業を
もたらし、目標言語習得の有効性があり、移民や留
学生を多く受け入れ、多民族・多文化複合社会であ
るヨーロッパ、北米、豪州ですでに実証されている。
特にヨーロッパではEU統合以来、次世代が経済的、
政治的、文化的にEU諸国を理解する必要がある。
母国語を含めて多言語・多文化を中等教育から学
習させ、留学や単位互換を奨励するソクラテス・エラ
スムス計画もCLTをさらに発展させている。
23
CLTの本質とCLTの文脈でのコミュ
ニケーション能力
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仮説理論であるCommunicative Approach の目的
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to make communicative competence the
goal of language teaching
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to develop procedures for the teaching of the
four language skills that acknowledge the
interdependence of language and
communication
Richards (1986)
24
CLTがなぜ学習者中心の立場をとるか
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1.コミュニケーション能力の育成のために目標言語の機能
と構造的な側面を重視する。
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2.学習者にrole play(ロールプレイ)、problem-solving(問
題解決)、improvisation(即興劇)、pair-monitoring(ペアー
で文法チェック) peer-editing(学習者同士でお互いの文章
やスピーチの構成を点検したり編集する)等、多様な
communicative tasks(コミュニカテイブなタスク)を与え、積
極的にペアーやグループの言語活動を奨励するためである。
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3 人間のコミュニケーションに欠かせない一方からの働き
かけ(transaction)と相互作用(interaction)を学習者に目標
言語を使いながら体得させるためである。
25
CLTと学習者中心の授業
Nunan (1997 ) states that a major
impetus to the develop of learnercentered language teaching came with
the advent of communicative language
teaching.
 A communicative view of language and
language learning has become the
mainstream in ELT.
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The principles of Communicative
language Teaching (CLT)
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* Learners learn a language through using it to
communicate
* Authentic and meaningful communication
should be the goal of classroom activities
* Fluency is an important dimension of
communication.
* Communication involves the integration of
different language skills.
* Learning is a process of creative construction
and involves trial and error.
Richards and Rogers (2001)
27
Integrated Communicative Approaches
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提言
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最近のコミュニカティブなアプローチを統合し、
学習者が一連のCommunicative Tasksに参
加する授業は学習者中心の授業に発展する。
Recent EFL/ESL education is exploring the
integration of current communicative
approaches.
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28
Integrated Current Communicative
Approaches
Communicative Language Teaching
Cooperative Language Learning
The Natural Approach
Task-Based
Language Teaching
Humanistic
Approach
Content-Based
Instruction
Community Language
Learning
Competency-Based
Language Learning
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The integration of current
communicative approaches(1)
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*Communicative Language Teaching (CLT)
(目標言語を使用し communicationが目的)
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*Task-based Teaching (Communicative Tasks)
(コミュニケーション中心のタスク)
(Role play, improvisation, pair work, group work,
peer editing, oral and written presentation,
problem-solving discussion and logical debate)
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*Natural Approach and the five Hypotheses
(ナチュラル・アプローチと5つの仮説)
30
The integration of current
communicative approaches (2).
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*Content-based Teaching (CBT) (意味内容を重視)
(Logical and academic /interdisciplinary
development)
*Cooperative Language Learning (共同学習、協
力、不安や緊張を解消)
(Brain-storming, preparation, peer editing, peerrevising and sharing)
*Problem-solving Approach (Deweyの問題解決法)
*Process Approach (結果より学習プロセスを重視)
*Humanistic Approach (人間愛、個々の人間の尊重)
31
Integrated Current Communicative Approaches
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1 Communicative Language Teaching
目標言語を使用し communicationが目的
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2 Task-Based Teaching
(Communicative Tasks:コミュニケーション中心のタスク)
Communication (rotating, role play, interviewing)
Drama ( improvisation)
Essay Writing ( peer editing, sharing, )
Oral presentation (VTR 5)
Problem-solving Discussion (VTR 4)
Logical Debate
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Integrated Current Communicative
Approaches for a Learner-centered classroom
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Going through these integrated current
communicative approaches, naturally we
can create a learner-centered classroom
based on the philosophy of humanistic
tradition, which argues “Learners first,
learning second.” As Richards and Rogers
(2001) emphasize, “Learner engagement is a
priority.
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Integrated Current Communicative
Approaches for a Learner-centered classroom
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As Nunan (1997) shows, curriculum
development should involve the interaction
of needs analysis, goal setting, grading and
sequencing of content, materials
development, implementation and
evaluation. We should also see how theses
processes interact within a leaner-centered
approaches to curriculum.
34
CLLと学習者中心の授業
Cooperative Language Learning
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* John Deweyの影響 Cooperation in learning
( peer-tutoring and peer-monitoring)
* 認知心理学の影響
Richards and Rogers (2001) state that in second
language teaching, Cooperative Language
Learning (CLL) has been embraced as a way of
promoting communicative interaction in the
classroom and is seen as an extension of the
principles of Communicative Language Teaching.
It is viewed as a learner-centered approach to
teaching held to offer advantages over teacherfronted classroom methods.
35
CLLと学習者中心の授業
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In language reaching its goals are:
--to provide opportunities for naturalistic second
language acquisition through the use of interactive
pair and group activities
--to provide opportunities for learners to develop
successful learning and communication strategies
--to enhance learner motivation and reduce leaner
stress and to create ea positive affective classroom
climate. (Richards and Rogers 2001:193)
36
内容重視、プロセス重視、問題解決重視
Content-Based, Process-Based
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学習者中心の発信型の英語教育においては自分
のアイデアを発信するための言語習得が最優先さ
れる。学習者にとって興味関心がある内容を重視す
ること(Content-Based Instruction)で学習意欲を高め、
学習者同士が協力し合い、教師側の指導の下に、
プロセスに従って自分自身の意見や解決策をまと
め上げることも可能である (Process Approach)。ま
た、学習者が興味あるテーマに関して集められた情
報や背景知識を整理し、問題解決 (Problem Solving)
のために現状を分析し、因果関係を明確にして、解
決策を導き、論理的に議論する能力を育むことも可
能である。
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The Natural Approach
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The Natural Approach 5つの仮説の有効性
The Acquisition Learning Hypothesis
 The Monitor Hypothesis
 The Natural Order Hypothesis
 The Input Hypothesis
 The Affective Filter Hypothesis
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NA 仮説1
Acquisition-Learning
Hypothesis
Acquisition(習得)Learning(学習)
informal
formal
“picking up” “knowledge about”
Subconscious
Conscious
implicit
explicit
39
NA 仮説2 The Natural Order
Hypothesis
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The Second Language (L2)Acquisition models the
process of the First Language(L1) Acquisition
L2 Models L1
The 1st Stage: Silent Period (Only listening )
The 2nd Stage: Simple Forms, 1 to 3 word,
sentences (ex. “Teacher mine pencil”)
The 3rd Stage: Developmental Errors (as in L1)
( ex. “Dad my foot are all wet.”)
40
NA仮説3:The Monitor Hypothesis
 Relates
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to Conscious Learning
(as opposed to acquisition)
 Self-editor Function
 Ex. “My foots are, Oh no, that’s wrong my feet
are..” “He go to, Oh no, He goes..”
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Seen Most Often in Adult
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“Drive careful.”
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Learners and Literate Students
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Model of Language Performance
Acquired
Competence
monitor
output
1 time to think
2 focus on form/structure
3 knowledge of rule
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NA仮説4:The Input Hypothesis
 Input Should be:
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1) Comprehensible/Interesting/Meaningful
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2) Slightly beyond the student’s current
Level of Competence ( i )
+1)
(i
Input
umbrella (i+1)
 Student’s Current Level
hand (i)
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Input Hypothesis の活用
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より理解しやすく、意味内容のある情報(More
Comprehensive Input)を学習者に与えることにより、
外国語(第二言語)の習得(More Second Language
Acquisition)がより一層可能になる。
Ex. (Web Research by Internet, Pleasure
Reading, Romantic Movies)
学習者がより興味関心を抱く、意味のある内容を十
分にインプットし、プロセスを追って共同学習するこ
とで目標言語の習得にもつながり、学習者参加型
の授業が実現する。
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Input Hypothesis by Krashen
A Stage
i (current level) +1
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More Second Language Acquisition
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More Comprehensible Input
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Input Hypothesis
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What Makes Input Comprehensible?
Modeling (Situational, Realistic)
Visual Aids (Visual Context)
Pictures (New Vocabularies with Pictures)
Objects ( something to touch, experience)
Gestures (by doing, acting, moving)
Changing the way to describe and express
(paraphrasing, rephrasing) Ex. TPO VTR
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ナチュラル・アプローチのインプット仮
説を活用 Input Hypothesis
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インプットと情意フィルターの関係
As much comprehensible input as possible
must be presented. In order to lower the
affective filter, student work should center
on meaningful communication rather than
on form; input should be interesting and so
contribute to a relaxed classroom
atmosphere. (Richards:1995)
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ナチュラル・アプローチのインプット仮
説を活用 Input Hypothesis

内容を重視する学習者中心の授業においては、学
習者の知的関心を高め、学習者自身に共通する人
間社会やグローバルな問題を扱うことが望まれる。
クラッシェンが Natural Approachのインプット仮説
の中でも力説しているが、より理解できる情報
(More Comprehensive Input)を学習者に与えるこ
とにより、より外国語の習得(More Foreign
Language Acquisition)が可能になるのである。学
習者がより興味関心を抱く、意味のある内容を十分
にインプットし、プロセスを追って共に学習すること
で目標言語の習得にもつながるのである。
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仮説5: The Affective Filter
Hypothesis
When the filter (fear and anxiety of learning L2)
is lower students feel comfortable and receptive in
learning in L2 class. When the filter is up,
students feel nervous and learn less in L2 class.
1)Students Attitude ( Positive, challenging?)
2) Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs (need to learn)
3) Classroom Atmosphere (Comfortable context)
4) Teacher Attitude (Sensitive and Humanistic)
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情意フィルター仮説の活用
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Affective Filter Hypothesis
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Motivation. Learners with high motivation
generally do better.
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高いモチベーション
Self-confidence. Learners with self-
confidence and a good self-image tend to be
more successful.
学習者の自信

Anxiety. Low personal anxiety and low
classroom anxiety are more conductive to second
language acquisition.
不安・緊張解消
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(7)情意フィルターを低く押さへLanguage
Homeを目指す Affective Filter Hypothesis
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The Affective Filter Hypothesis from The Natural
Approach
The Affective Filter Hypothesis is built on research in
second language acquisition, which has identified three
kinds of affective or attitudinal variables related to second
language acquisition.
Motivation. Learners with high motivation generally do
better.
Self-confidence. Learners with self-confidence and a good
self-image tend to be more successful.
Anxiety. Low personal anxiety and low classroom anxiety
are more conductive to second language acquisition.
51
情意フィルターを低く押さへLanguage
Homeを目指す Affective Filter Hypothesis

学習者中心の授業スタイルにおいては、従来
の外国語学習に伴なう高い情意フィルター
(緊張感、恐怖感)を学習者同士の相互協力、
分担、相互点検、教師側の指導と援助という
プロセスを通して低く押さえることができる。
その結果として、語学を学ぶ場も教師が学習
者の文法知識を点検する訳読中心の教室か
ら言語習得を目指す言語活動のホーム
(Language Home)へと変容するのである。
52
Summary of The Natural Approach:
Classroom Implications in NA
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1) Encouragement ( 4 EN of EFL/ESL Class)
2) Creating Low Risk Environment
3) Concrete Experiences for Language Acquisition
4) Use of Cues (visual aids, pictures, objects)
5) Meaningful Input for Communicative Tasks
6) Active Involvement
 (Cooperative and Community Language Learning)
53
Summary: The Natural Approach
 1)
Comprehension Precedes
Production (理解は発話に先行)
 2) High-interest Activities Stimulate
Language Development

(興味・関心のある活動)
3) Message Must Be comprehensible
54
Summary of Natural Approach:
Stages of the Natural Approach
 1)
Comprehension
 2) Early Speech Production
 3) Speech Emergence
55
Eclectic Approach 折衷式教授法

一つの教授法に固執したり支配されるのでは
なく, いくつかの仮説理論を折衷・統合する。

授業目的、教師の外国語運用能力、学習者
の習熟レベル、学習者のニーズ、年齢、心理
状態に応じて、多くの教授法の利点を取捨選
択したり、統合して適切な目標言語習得の学
習環境を創造していくこと。
56
教師の役割

Teacher Roles:
英語の授業は教師中心のmonologue(独白)
ではなく、双方向の授業実現のためにも教師
は常に supervisor(指導者)、cultural
informant(文化情報提供者)、 facilitator of
the communicative classroom(コミュニカティ
ブな授業の促進者)、 observer(観察者)、
participant(参加者)、 learner(学習者)
action researcher (自己の授業改善のために
常に授業実践に基づく教授法の研究者)の役
割を巧みに演じなければならない。
57
Teacher Roles 教師の役割
Facilitator
Cultural Informant進行役
文化提供者
Diagnostician
診断者
Observer
観察者
Supervisor
監督
Co-Communicator
共通の伝達者
Learner
Action Researcher
学習者 授業改善の研究者
Participant
参加者
58
教師の役割 Teacher Roles:




Facilitator: to facilitate the communication
process between all participants in the classroom,
and between these participants and the various
activities and texts.
Independent participant within the learningteaching group organizer of resources and as a
resource himself/herself
Guide within the classroom procedures and
activities
Researcher and learner for Action Research. (See
Richards and Rogers 2001)
59
教師に求められているもの
学生アンケート甲南大学 (中級・上級英語ライテイング・ス
ピーチ・コミュニケーション 1997-1999) 200名対象
60
Humanistc
Approach
Teaching Skills
50
40
20
Academic
Knowledge
Fairness
10
Sense of Humor
30
0
人間愛
教授法
60
学習者の役割 Learner Roles

A negotiator between the self, the leaning process,
and the object of leaning. Joint negotiator within
the group and within the classroom procedures
and activities which the group undertakes.
Contributor and Participants in the
communicative and interactive classroom
(See Richards and Rogers 2001).
61
Academic Approach
教室内と外で学習者が主体的に参加

1


2


3


4



5
gathering information
(情報収集) Internet, Resource Center
sharing information and facts
(情報と事実を共有)
processing the necessary information
(必要な情報の選択と処理)
organizing and constructing their own ideas
(自分自身の考えや意見の構築)
presenting their own ideas in written and oral
forms
(リサーチペーパーや口頭発表)
62
An Academic Approach in EFL
 The
prerequisite of EFL education
includes a basic academic
approach which involves students
in the following process, especially
in the study of writing a research
paper, drafting a public speech, and
preparing a democratic discussion
and logical debate with valid
evidence:
63
John Dewey: Problem-Solving Approach
ジョン・デユーイ問題解決のための反省的思考





1 Defining the problem
(問題の定義)
2 Analyzing the problem (causes and effects)
(問題の因果関係を分析)
3 Suggesting possible workable solutions
(可能な解決策の提案・ブレインストーミング)
4 Selecting the best solution
(最善の解決策を選択)
5 Implementing ways of carrying out the best
solution
(最善策の実践)
64

It can be safely said that integrating global
issues into an EFL class, focusing on the
problem-solving process as a core concern
of the education process, will develop
students’ global awareness and skills for
self-representation. The process of thinking,
sharing and discussing global issues related
to global human rights, and consequently
the process of organizing, drafting and
revising one’s own ideas for oral
presentation is the process of an academic
and problem-solving approach.
65
The merits of using both an academic
approach and problem-solving approach


The merits of using both an academic approach
and problem-solving approach in an interactive
EFL classroom by integrating global human issues
into public speech and discussion, are that the
students can cultivate a spontaneous urge to
express themselves orally with greater global
literacy.
Consequently they no longer see the world as a
fragmented and unconnected entity―an attitude
which leads to indifference, ignorance, intolerance,
and isolation in the midst of global interaction and
interdependence.
66
学習者中心のカリキュラム開発
Curriculum Development


Curriculum development should involve the
interaction of needs analysis, goal setting, grading
and sequencing of content, materials development,
implementation and evaluation. (カリキュラム開
発は学習者のneed分析、目標設定、評価、
授業内容、教材開発、授業実践、授業評価
などとの関係を重視)
We should also see how theses processes
interact within a leaner-centered approaches
to curriculum.
Nunan (1997)
67
Conclusion

日本の英語教育で身に付けた外国語運用能力は
国際社会で通用し、その後の人生でも生涯教育とし
て自学できるものでなければならない。EUをはじめ、
世界が多言語・多文化社会に向かう国際化の中で、
我々言語教育に携わる者は、まず学習者中心の外
国語の授業を実践することで自らの意識革命を図り
たい。学習者にとっても目標言語の受信だけではな
く、自らの発信につながるような授業を実現したい。
自国の言語文化を多言語で語り、日本、アジア、世
界が議論できる次世代を世界に送ることこそ外国語
教育の使命である。
68
SUGGESTED BOOK FOR FURTHER READING





Designing Tasks for the
Communicative Classroom.
Nunan, David. (1989).
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Approaches and
Methods in Language Teaching.
Richards, J & Rogers, T. (2001).
Cambridge University Press.
Nunan, David. (1988). The Learner-Centered
Curriculum Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
69
SUGGESTED BOOK FOR
FURTHER READING






Brooks, Elaine & Len, Fox.. (2000). Making Peace: A
Reading/Writing/Thinking Text on Global Community. Cambridge.
Cambridge University Press. (Global and Peace Education)
Brown, Lester R., ed. (1998) The World Watch Reader on Global
Environmental Issues. New York:
Norton. (Environmentally friendly Sustainable Society for
Intergenerational Equity)
Levine, D, & Mara, A.(1993). Beyond Language : Cross-Cultural
Communication. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. (Cross-cultural
Communication and Multi-cultural Literacy)
Nunan, David. (1989). Designing Tasks for the Communicative
Classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Richards, J & Rogers, T. (2001) Approaches and Methods in Language
Teaching. Cambridge University Press.
70
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