The definition of Orientalism
• Said14 (1978) argued that European culture gained in
strength and identity by setting itself of against the
Orient as a sort of surrogate and even underground self,
defining Orientalism as a Western style for
dominating, restructuring, and having
authority over the Orient. He presented the
important hypothesis in his book, Orientalism, that
without examining Orientalism as a discourse one
cannot possibly understand the enormously systematic
discipline by which European culture was able to
manage--and even produce--the Orient (Said, 1978).
Orientalism by Edward Said ①
• Said’s Orientalism can be a critical tool to examine
the validity of all the literature on the East written
by the Westerners. Influenced by the imperialism
and colonialism of the 19th century, Western
people became interested in the natives and the
cultures of Western colonies.
• This led to the advent of anthropology as related
to Darwinian Evolutionism12 and Hegelian
Progressivism in The Philosophy of History.13
Exponents of evolutionism believed that culture
generally develops and evolves from primitive
stages into advanced ones. (Nakamura, 1998)
Orientalism by Edward Said ②
• People who supported the Hegelian progressive
view of history believed that history is not
meaningless chance, but a rational process and
transition from the ancient Oriental world through
classical Greece and Rome and the Middle Ages to
the modern German world.
• These people are supporters of a Westerncentered linear theory of history and culture based
on a developmental dialectic. This theory led to
the Western-centered view of non-Western
cultures as inferior to Western cultures. This view
was to be criticized by Edward Said in his work on
Orientalism in the late 20th century. (Nakamura, 1998)
Said’s Conviction
• Said (1981) emphasizes the following point:
• Underlying every interpretation of other
cultures is the choice facing the individual
scholar or intellectual; whether to put intellect
at the service of power or at the service of
criticism, communities, and moral sense.16
• To use Said's phrase, Benedict faces the conflict;
whether to put her intellect at the service of the
American power as an Orientalist or at the
service of an understanding of Japanese cultural
identity as a relativist. (Nakamura, 1998).
The Voice from Edward Said
at Cairo University in 2003
• You cannot deal with others without profound
knowledge of his or her culture, society and history.
• 他者や他民族の文化・社会・歴史への深い理解
• Force never works, because you can never destroys
the will of people and the power of people.
• 力や軍事力で人民の意志や力を破壊できない。
• Idea is equality, coexistence and sustainable life.
• The present is our battle ground and knowledge is
our main weapons.
(Edward Said:2003)
The Clash of Civilizations by Samuel P. Huntington
• In the longer term other measures would be called for. Western
civilization is both Western and modern. Non-Western civilizations
have attempted to become modern without becoming Western. To
date only Japan has fully succeeded in this quest. Non-Western
civilization will continue to attempt to acquire the wealth,
technology, skills, machines and weapons that are part of being
modern. They will also attempt to reconcile this modernity with
their traditional culture and values. Their economic and military
strength relative to the West will increase. Hence the West will
increasingly have to accommodate these non-Western
modern civilizations whose power approaches that of the
West but whose values and interests differ significantly
from those of the West. This will require the West to
maintain the economic and military power necessary to
protect its interests in relation to these civilizations.
Concluding paragraph of Foreign Affairs Summer 1993 by Huntington
The Clash of Civilizations ②
by Samuel P. Huntington
• It will also, however, require the West to develop
a more profound understanding of the basic
religious and philosophical assumptions
underlying other civilizations and the ways in
which people in those civilizations see their
interests. It will require an effort to identify
elements of commonality between Western and
other civilizations. For the relevant future, there
will be no universal civilization, but instead a
world of different civilizations, each of which will
have to learn to coexist with the others.
• Concluding paragraph of Foreign Affairs Summer 1993
by Huntington
What Are Some Examples Of Orientalism?
• Orientalism refers to mannerism, quality, or customs specific to or characteristic
of the Orient. Given definition of the Orientalism doesn't suffice for a complete
reflection of the Orientalism, as Edward Said contends that Orientalism means
more than sheer understanding of the Orient, rather it refers to a biased
understanding of the Orient on the part of the west.
Some glaring examples of Orientalism can be found in the following content:
• Firstly, the justifying principle of colonialism, which the west used extensively for
its imperialistic designs, emerged out of Orientalism whereby the west
conveniently declared the Orient "ignorant and dark" and to enlighten it the west
embarked upon colonial expedition.
• Secondly, so long as cultural interaction started between the east and the west,
one way flow of ideas and philosophy appears marked, the stream of flow has
been from the west to eastwards. It again proves that under the influence of the
Orientalism the west has been reluctant to open up its acceptance to the Oriental
philosophy and ideas, rather it has been immensely concentrating on pouring the
western philosophy and ideas generously on the Orient.
• Thirdly, the recent most manifestation of Orientalism is exhibited through neoimperialism, under which the west led by the U.S.A. is invading the dark and
ignorant of the Orient, to enlighten them.
Rightly or wrongly, one popular stereotype
of Japanese working culture
"Stereotype is a standardized concept or image of a specific group of
people. Stereotypes force a simple pattern upon a complex mass and
assign a limited number of characteristics to all members of a group."
Yellow Peril 黄禍論
• Admiral Mahan of the United States Navy saw:
world at bay, in danger
of losing its momentum and facing
the staggering task of assimilating
millions of semi-civilized people.
• (The Troubled Encounter: The United States
and Japan, New York. Wiley, 1975, p.28)
Stereotypes of British
Stereotypes of German
Japanese typography, Western
stereotypes about Japan
These incisive Russian cartoons call attention to the role the United States
played in helping to finance Japan’s war. In fact, the Japanese government
depended on large private loans raised in both New York and London to
meet its enormous military expenses.
Japanese Stereotypes. *Japanese are all small and
• ヘーゲルの歴史哲学は,「哲学が歴史に赴く際に
The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of
Capitalism (1904, 1905)by Max Weber, a
German economist and sociologist.
The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism
• Weber argues that Puritan ethics and ideas
influenced the development of capitalism and
brought wealth.
• Religious devotion usually rejects worldly affairs
but Protestant ethic accepted secular world and
addresses this apparent paradox in the book.
• Examples, (West Europe, North Europe and USA)
• How could he explain Japan’s case and China?
• It must be a challenge to analyze Weber’s book in
terms of Orientalism.
Beyond Orientalism and Occidentalism
• Recrimination
vs. Reconciliation
• worn-out dogma vs. Direct dialog and Contact
• Ethnocentrism
vs. Cultural Relativism
• Racism and Xenophobia vs. Multiculturalism in L. D.
(Liberal Democracy )
• Colonialism
Cross-cultural Education
• Unipolarism
Cultural Diversity and
Respect for cultural identities
• Trans-cultural and Transnational (supranational)
perspectives, without losing individual cultural identities
and sense of human solidarity
Beyond Orientalism and Occidentalism
• European culture gained in strength and identity by
setting itself of against the Orient as a sort of surrogate
and even underground self, defining Orientalism as a
Western style for dominating, restructuring, and having
authority over the Orient (Said, 1978).
• Stereotyped portrayals of Westerners appear in
many works of Indian, Chinese and Japanese artist
during this period. The Ideals of the East by
Tenshin Okakura.
The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism
• In the book, Weber wrote that capitalism in
northern Europe evolved when the Protestant
(particularly Calvinist) ethic influenced large
numbers of people to engage in work in the
secular world, developing their own enterprises
and engaging in trade and the accumulation of
wealth for investment. In other words, the
Protestant ethic was a force behind an unplanned
and uncoordinated mass action that influenced the
development of capitalism.
The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism
• Weber argues that Puritan ethics and ideas
influenced the development of capitalism.
Religious devotion, however, usually accompanied
a rejection of worldly affairs, including the pursuit
of wealth and possessions. Why was that not the
case with Protestantism? Weber addresses this
apparent paradox in the books.
• (Wikipedia)