Class Session 13b
Chapter 8
•
Days of the Week
•
Months of the Year
•
Days of the Month
•
Years
•
Expressing Absolute Time with the Particle ni
•
The Question Word itsu
Japanese 1100-L13b-07-18-2012
1
Days of the Week
• The days of the week in Japanese:
nichi-yōbi
(日曜日)
日 means “sun”
Sunday
getsu-yōbi
(月曜日)
月 means “moon”
Monday
ka-yōbi
(火曜日)
火 means “fire”
Tuesday
sui-yōbi
(水曜日)
水 means “water”
Wednesday
moku-yōbi
(木曜日)
木 means “wood”
Thursday
kin-yōbi
(金曜日)
金 means “gold”
Friday
do-yōbi
(土曜日)
土 means “earth”
Saturday
• The first character of the names of the days of the week appear as column heads
on a calendar
Japanese 1100-L13b-07-18-2012
2
Months of the Year
The months of the year are expressed with a number + gatsu:
ichi-gatsu
January
ni-gatsu
February
san-gatsu
March
shi-gatsu
April
go-gatsu
May
roku-gatsu
June
shichi-gatsu
July
hachi-gatsu
August
ku-gatsu
September
jū-gatsu
October
jū-ichi-gatsu
November
jū-ni-gatsu
December
• Note that the seldom-used shi is used for the 4th month (April)
Japanese 1100-L13b-07-18-2012
3
Days of the Month
• The days of the month are expressed with a number followed by the ordinal counter
nichi, but there are many irregularities (list on pages 155-156 in textbook):
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
14
15
20
tsuitachi
futsu-ka
mik-ka
yok-ka
itsu-ka
mui-ka
nano-ka
yō-ka
kokono-ka
tō-ka
jū-ichi-nichi
jū-yok-ka
jū-go-nichi
hatsuka
21
24
30
31
Japanese 1100-L13b-07-18-2012
ni-jū-ichi-nichi
ni-jū-yok-ka
san-jū-nichi
san-jū-ichi-nichi
4
Years
The ordinal counter for years is nen and there are no irregularities in pronunciation:
ichi-nen
ni-nen
san-nen
yon-nen
go-nen
roku-nen
nana-nen
hachi-nen
kyū-nen
sen-kyū-hyaku-kyū-jū-hachi-nen
ni-sen-nana-nen
ni-sen-jū-ni-nen
Japanese 1100-L13b-07-18-2012
1998
2007
2012
5
Years
• There are two systems for expressing the year in Japanese:
the Western system based On the Christian era,
the Japanese system based on the reign of emperors
• When a new emperor ascends the throne, a new era name is created and is used until
the next new emperor takes the throne
• The current Emperor, Heisei, ascended the throne in 1989 so that was the first year of
the reign of Heisei (Heisei gannen); 1990 was the second year (or Heisei ni-nen)
• The current year is Heisei 24 ((current year – 1989) + 1)
• The previous Emperor was Showa, who reigned from 1926 until 1989
• The first year of the reign of Showa (Showa gannen) was 1926 and the last was 1989
(Showa 64)
• The first year of any emperor’s reign is measured from the date of death of the last
emperor until the last day of December of that year, and is counted as the first year
regardless of how long it actually was.
• The Japanese system date is used on official records in Japan
Japanese 1100-L13b-07-18-2012
6
Expressing Absolute Time with the Particle ni
• The particle ni is used to mark an event if the time phrase expresses an absolute time
such as Monday, 27th or 3 PM
tanaka-san wa san-ji ni kimashita.
Mr. Tanaka came at 3 o’clock.
getsuyōbi ni sumisu-san ni aimashita.
I met Mr. Smith on Monday.
• The particle ni is NOT used if the time phrase expresses a relative time such as
yesterday, last year, or next month, etc.
raigetsu itaria ni ikimasu.
I will go to Italy next month.
• Note also that the particle e is never used with time phrases
Japanese 1100-L13b-07-18-2012
7
The Question Word itsu
• The question word itsu is used to ask when?
• The expected answer can be either absolute time or relative time
• The particle ni is not required with itsu
Itsu amerika ni kimashita ka.
When did you come to America?
• For asking what time? use nan-ji (what o’clock)
kinō wa nan-ji ni nemashita ka.
What time did you go to bed yesterday
• You can also use other phrases such as:
nan-yōbi
nan-gatsu
what day (of the week)?
what month?
Japanese 1100-L13b-07-18-2012
8
ダウンロード

Class Session 13b Lecture (7/18/12)