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Food in Shinto(日仏共同ゼミ・シンポジウム)
TAKASHIMA, Motohiro
大学院教育改革支援プログラム「日本文化研究の国際的
情報伝達スキルの育成」活動報告書
2010-03-31
http://hdl.handle.net/10083/49098
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This document is downloaded at: 2015-11-23T16:44:46Z
日仏共同ゼミ・シンポジウム
Food in Shinto
TAKASHIMA, Motohiro
was the very similar to Kagezen (影膳: setting a
meal for an absent person). Now everyone at home
would gather round and eat the same lunch as this.
In this respect, intangible nutrient was lurking. In
other words, the fact, that packed lunches formed
a group of communal eating and drinking, became
invisible saltness.”
[ⅱ]Eating, drinking and living together were to
be conscious of home as a unit of human relations.
Eating, drinking and living are to eat, drink and
live at home. That people keep on eating, drinking
and living makes their home be lasting. At home,
there are living inhabitants. Also, other members
exists there. They are dead ancestors. Their souls
didn’t leave their home, and they composed home.
The living descendants have an obligation to
enshrine their ancestors’ souls. This is the idea of
Ubusuna.
People didn’t think that ancestors would go to
another world after death. The souls remained in
this world. Yanagita said “Though invisible, the
ancestors rested and inhabited in mountains,
rivers, grasses and trees of their hometown. They
watched the good old life which they had formerly
participated in. People thought in this way.”
However, the modernization destroyed such orders.
Yanagita called the destruction of [ⅰ] the division
of fire, the concession of fire Shinto and the
destruction of food unity. Also, concerning [ⅱ], he
termed the division of home and decomposition of
the idea of Ubusuna.
Precisely, the city named Edo was the place
where bachelors flocked. Most of the citizens
were male. In the Meiji period, moreover, the
phenomenon samurais and farmers left their
birthplace and moved into cities accelerated.
In such a situation, as regards food, eating out
became popular. At first the form of eating out was
packed lunches, and then teahouses and the like
were built in the Edo period. They evolved and
developed into restaurants in the modern times.
Yanagita read invisible transition of human relations
into this change in the form of dining. The change
of the way food is was the shift in the meaning of
fire. In those days, the aspect around the hearth in
houses was changing. Without notice, the head of a
family couldn’t be seen on Yokoza. The order of
(1) Food and religion―fire, food, home and the
idea of Ubusuna [ 産 土 思 想 ] by YANAGITA
Kunio [柳田国男 1875-1962]
The Meiji Taisho shi Sesohen (明治大正史 世相
篇: Lives during the Meiji and Taisho Periods,
1931 by YANAGITA Kunio)1 was an attempt to
describe history only by “the facts which appear
and disappear before our eyes every day” and the
common facts in the world.
After the Meiji Restoration (1868), Japanese
society underwent rapid modernization. Most of
the pre-modern life-styles changed seriously in
this time. Yanagita confirmed this process of
modernization by specific facts. Through the changes
of color, sound, food, home and scenery (which the
then people was exposed to every day and felt
directly), he revealed that our society and views
would shift gradually.
His interest was how people dealt with the
chaotic transition called modernization. It is said
“In many cases, history was a book of regret.” Lots
of things were losing before people knew it, and
their life changed fundamentally. But there was
still room for correction.
The feature of this book is that he gave vivid
descriptions of pre-modern life-styles. Also, as for
the religion what is called Shinto, he began with
explaining concrete things like fire and food.
[ⅰ] There was a hearth (囲炉裏: constructed in
the floor) in the middle of a house. It was
surrounded with Yokoza ( 横 座 : on which the
householder of the family sits), Kakaza (かか座)
and Kyakuza (客座)2. The order whose center was
fire of the hearth existed there.
Over fire of the hearth, the pothook was set.
There was the territory where Kojin ( 荒 神 様 :
sometimes called Kamado-gami 竈神, who is the
Japanese kami of fire, the hearth and the kitchen)
controlled. The food was cooked by pure fire (清い
火) he controlled. Dining was communal eating
and drinking (共同飲食). Eating was to live, and
living was to live a community life. Pure fire
cooked food and it became intangible nutrient (無
形の養分) for living together. The packed lunches
for eating outside were also cooked by the same
fire. Yanagita said “The principal of packed lunches
25
TAKASHIMA, Motohiro:Food in Shinto
home and the idea of Ubusuna were changing. The
domestic order split, and consequently ancestor
worship were falling apart.
fruit, vegetables, beasts, birds, fish and shellfish,
belong among Shinsen.4
In the Jingu which is the Japan’s biggest shrine,
complex rites continually take place at all seasons.
Excepting a little shift with the times, Shinsen
offered to ceremonies almost don’t change. The old
rituals are still valued now, and Shinsen are
produced and prepared with ensuring cleanliness.5
The main things of Shinsen are rice (御料米), salt
(御塩), vegetables, fruit, abalone and dried bream.
Jingu set up own factory (調進所) and directly
produces each of them there.
In the case of Jingu, food has important meaning
as to Saijin and Shinsen. Then, generalize and
consider this.
(2) The meaning of food in Shinto
[Ⅰ]The food worship in the Grand Shrines of Ise
―【Saijin (祭神: the Kami a shrine is dedicated
to)】and【Shinsen (神饌: food and alcohol
offering to the Kami)】
Yanagita expounded a religion what is called
Shinto concretely from a series of life things as fire,
food, home and the idea of Ubusuna. Hereinafter,
focus on food further, and find what problems are
there.
Taking the Grand Shrines of Ise (伊勢神宮) for
instance and thinking about the food worship, we’ll
understand that food has an important meaning in
【Saijin】 and 【Shinsen】.
First, let me explain【Saijin】
. Ise Shrine comprises
the Inner Shrine, Naiku (also officially known as
Kotaijingu 皇大神宮) and the Outer Shrine, Geku
(also officially known as Toyoukedaijingu 豊受大神
宮 ). Concerning Saijin, Naiku and Geku are
dedicated to Amaterasu-Oomikami (天照大御神)
and Toyouke-no-Oomikami (豊受大御神) respectively.
Amaterasu-Oomikami is Ohomioyakami of the
Emperor (天皇の大皇祖神: meaning that she is
said to be directly linked in lineage to the
Imperial Household of Japan and the Emperor).
Toyouke-no-Oomikami is called Toyoukebime-no-Mikoto,
and is the original spirit of grain. She is
Miketsu-Ookami (御食津大神: the kami of food),
who was deified heavily by Amaterasu-Oomikami
(MOTOORI Norinaga, the Ise niku saki take no
ben (伊勢二宮さき竹の弁)). Toyouke-no-Oomikami
was termed Toyoukebime-no-Mikoto (豊宇気毘売
命 ) in the Kojiki ( 古 事 記 : record of Ancient
Matters).The ke (気) in this name means food (食)
and offerings (饌). Also, she is the tutelary deity of
Oomike (大御饌 : means the food Amaterasu-Oomikami
has).3
This issue of Saijin concerns with the birth of
Ise Shintoism (Geku Shintoism) in the thirteenth
century, but here it is sufficient to only confirm
that food is enshrined in Geku as Kami (Shinto
god).
Next, I give the explanations of【Shinsen】.【Shinsen】
is the generic name of the food and drink which
are offered to Kamis. The meaning of it is to wish
for the appearance of Kami, to be hospitable to
them, and to meal with them together (神人共食).
The various foods, as alcohol, water, salt, grain,
[Ⅱ]【Saijin】Food turns to Kami
In Japanese ancient times, most of Kami were
food. I try to cite some examples from the Kojiki.6
As the water Kami, for example, Mikumari-no-Kami
(水分の神: meaning the Kami who divides headwaters),
Mizuhanome-no-Kami (弥都波能売の神: meaning
the woman of the water starts to spring. The Kami
of irrigation water.) and Miwi-no-Kami (御井の神:
means august well) exist. Then as for rice Kami,
there are Toyoukebime-no-Kami (豊宇気毘売の神:
means the woman of rich and choice food. The uke
in this name means fine food and rice. The ke =
food and offerings), Ootoshi-no-Kami (大年の神:
means a fine crop of rice. The toshi means that
grains get ripe.), Mitoshi-no-Kami ( 御 年 の 神 :
means the Kami of the abundant crop in a year)
and Ukanomitama-no-Kami ( 宇 迦 之 御 魂 の 神 :
means the mysterious spirit inhabits in rice. The
uka is an old form of uke. The rice spirit.)
Also, all the names of the Emperor Jinmu (神武
天皇) and his brothers in the Kojiki mean food (the
rice spirit). Itsuse-no-Mikoto [五瀬の命: The se is se
of waseda (early rice field), and means rice. Itsuse
means solemn and divine rice.] (This Kami dies.),
Inahi-no-Mikoto [ 稲 泳 の 命 : The hi represents
spirits. His name means the rice spirit.] (He goes
to Haha-no-Kuni 妣の国.), and Mikenu-no-Mikoto
[御毛沼の命: The mike means offerings. The nu is
master. His name means the master of food.] (This
Kami goes to Tokoyo-no-Kuni 常世国.) The Emperor
Jinmu was called Wakamikenu-no-Mikoto [若御毛
沼の命: means the new birth of young grain spirit.]
and succeeded to the throne as the first emperor.
From these facts, we can see that the essence of
emperor is the shaman who deifies the rice spirit.
Except for above-mentioned Kami, Oogetsuhime
(大宜都比売: means the great woman of food. The
26
日仏共同ゼミ・シンポジウム
ge equals ke.), Toyuke-no-Kami (登由気の神: means
is the same category as sacrifices. The essence of
Shinsen which realizes prayers can be comprehended
from sacrifices.
Suppose Shinsen is sacrifices, there is the problem
how does it connect to the realization of prayer. In
subsequent chapter titled “(4) How does religion
control nature? (【Shinsen】Ⅳ)”, we consider this
mechanism of realizing inovation.
abundant food. Saijin of Geku as I have already
mentioned.), Mikenu-no-Mikoto (I have already
described.), Miketsu-Ookami (御食つ大神: means
great Kami of food. Saijin of Kehi-Jingu 気比神宮.)
and Kehi-no-Ookami (気比の大神: means great
Kami of the food spirit. The saijin enshrined in
Kehi-Jingu in the city of Tsuruga in Fukui
prefecture. The ke is food, and the hi is spirit.)
exist as the food Kami.
(3) How does nature (food) correlate with religion
(Shinto)? (【Saijin】ⅡⅢ)
[Ⅲ]The birth of the fundamental idea of Kami
(vitality or the creating and becoming powers)
Most of Kami in the Kojiki were food. In the
idea of Kami, there were Kami corresponding
to each individual food. Moreover, the fundamental
idea of Kami abstracted from them existed (vitality
or the creating and becoming powers).7 It was
Musubi-no-Kami.
Concerning this Kami, the Kojikiden (古事記伝:
Commentary on the Kojiki) written by Norinaga
said “Musubi (産霊) is mysterious Mitama (神霊:
spirit) which generate every things.” The musu in
musubi is the same as the musu of “Koke ga musu.
(meaning that moss covers something.)” and “Kusa
ga musu. (meaning that the grass sprouts.)”. It
means “generating”. Also, Musuko (息子: son) and
Musume (娘: daughter) are the same too. The
children are born as the grass and the moss.
Ancient people probably conceived the birth of
humans or things to be marvels. They had holy
feelings toward the creating and becoming powers.
The meaning of Musubi is what the divine
generating power and the mysterious creating and
becoming powers have been apotheosized.
Nature consists in the outside of human relations.
There are food and the source of human life. Let’s
think about this by ordering human view of nature
again.
The characteristic of modern view of nature is
that the idea humans can objectify and control
nature has established while natural science
(technology) has developed. The human progress
equals the technological advance. Science seemed
to solve all matters and bring eternal happiness
to human beings. However, the results were
the problem of pollution, the threat of nuclear
weapons and anxiety about biotechnology by
genetic manipulation for example. Therefore we
reflect on natural science in recent years. Also the
thought of nature conservation and the idea of
environmentalism appeared. The above summarizes
change in the view of nature.
To sum up like this, although the relationship
between human beings and nature seems to be
changing complexly from pre-modern times to
modern times, the basis of this relationship doesn’t
change in fact. On the contrary, it can’t change. As
for this, we can easily understand by considering
pre-modern times first.
First of all, let’s think about what nature was for
human beings in pre-modern times. Naturally, it
wasn’t the object of natural science as in modern
times. In medieval times, it was also the object of a
sense of beauty as Kacho fugetsu (花鳥風月), but
this wasn’t all its aspects. In addition, considering
past view of nature, we realize that nature is the
most fundamental thing which our lives originated
from.
We live through negotiating with nature. For
instance, we want good water. Also we get food by
collection, hunting and fishing, and sustain our
lives. In brief, there is the fundamental schema
that food is gained in nature where is the outside
of human relations.
In fact, that is the same today. Particularly, in
[Ⅳ]【Shinsen】The food as Shinsen
As has been mentioned in [Ⅱ] and [Ⅲ], food is
Kami. We offer food to the Kami. Through offering,
we wish for the appearance of Kami, delight them
and pray to them. Then, what do we pray for?
Needless to say, it is that we can stably obtain food
at all times and keep on sustaining our lives. What
it does mean? As to the meaning of invocation, I
want to consider again in the next chapter titled
“(3) How do nature (food) correlate with religion
(Shinto)? (【Saijin】ⅡⅢ)”.
Consider next [Ⅳ] the food as Shinsen.
The intent of rites (festivals) themselves consists
in praying to Kami with the whole of complex
structure.There are many procedures (factors)
for realizing prayers. One of them is [Ⅳ] Shinsen.
Shinsen is offering to Saijin. Generally speaking, it
27
TAKASHIMA, Motohiro:Food in Shinto
related to the problem of religion.
Once in Japanese ancient times, most of foods
were Kami as has been mentioned. Wishing to
these Kami means stabilizing the relationship
with nature. People wish to the Kami of water that
water would spring without cease. Also, they pray
to the Kami of rice and food that rice and food
would steadily be available.
Kami (that the Buddha is in the same category
as) were the device that stabilize the unstable
relationship between internal human beings and
external nature without physically conquering.
Natural science (technology) worked on nature
directly and mastered it. On the other hand, magic
(religion) controlled nature in the different way
from the way of natural science (technology).
Magic was essentially similar to technique. The
difference between the two was whether it works
on the object directly or not.8
Thus we can understand that the idea of Kami
is the sign showing our lives are formed by
depending on the outside. Humans sustain their
lives by external nature. Nature becomes their
food and turns to their vital energies. Religion
that is further external than nature is the device
for stabilizing this relationship between human
beings and nature. Through praying to Kami, this
relationship with nature becomes stable.
The meaning of religion is ambiguous. As concerns
believing in Kami (or the Buddha) and praying to
them, there are no other means besides their
literal means. However, their functions are complex
in actual fact.
In the case of the Kojiki, there is the magic that
is the first stage of religion (①). This idea of Kami
shows the material meaning that human food and
life depend on nature. Also, the idea becomes proof
that supremely ensures living (lives).
The religion in the next stage (②) abstracts and
generalizes the first stage. This idea of Kami
supports, establishes the inside and gives forms
(orders and meanings) to the inside. Like this,
religion varied from the stage of pure magic to the
religion for considering the meanings of human
living. Although there are still other stages after
(①) and (②), let me skip them (③).
the case of Japanese cities, the negotiation between
human beings and nature became extremely rare
in modern times. People seem to be working and
living only in the human relations at their office
for example. They work in companies, get salaries,
procure food at neighboring stores and lead daily
lives. They consider food to be produced from work
at office.
However, this is the delusion generated by modern
capitalism or technology. Needless to say, it is
impossible now that human beings live without
having to do with nature. In brief, humans don’t
live by human relations. Humans aren’t food, and
there is no food in the inside of human relations.
Thus finally, human lives are sustained by the
outside nature after all.
Then, how does this nature (food) be related to
religion (Shinto)?
At first the relationship between human beings
(the inside) and nature (the outside) was always
unstable. Since food wasn’t always available
sufficiently, human lives were wrapped in fears at
all times. As for even water, the water of good
quality didn’t exist everywhere. Day after day
people tried to get food through collection, hunting
and fishing, but they couldn’t necessarily gain.
Nevertheless, people began to vary this unstable
relationship with the source of life. For example,
the cultivation of food typified by rice farming
prevailed. Also, the techniques to gather, hunt and
fish progressed. But to say nothing of it, it is the
development of natural science (technology) that
changed rapidly this relationship. In this way,
nature was conquered. Like this, the relationship
with the outside which had been unstable became
stable. The more stable the relationship became,
the less conscious of the object people became.
Without being conscious of nature, people could get
food. Finally, the illusion that lives of human
beings had nothing to do with nature were
generated.
Natural science (technology) stabilized the
relationship between human beings and nature.
But human beings had wished for the stabilization
of the relationship from the remote past. This is
the religion. The problem of nature is always
28
日仏共同ゼミ・シンポジウム
【the inside】
人・・・他者・・・共同体
【visible outside】
【invisible outside =
other worlds】
・・・ 物・自然・宇宙 ・・・・・・・ 神・仏(超越的なもの)
person…other people…community
object, nature, the universe
Kami, the Buddha
(transcendent object)
this Kami. However, from the body of this Kami,
silkworm, rice, millet, small beans, wheat and
soybean came. This is the myth about the origin of
five grains. A similar-looking story exists in the
Nihon- Shoki (日本書紀) too.
The mythology that someone kills god and the
body engenders food can be found through the
world. A representative one is Hainuwele myth.10
Among the Wemale in Seram Island of Indonesia,
there is the myth about the primitive girl named
Hainuwele who was born of coconut blossoms. The
girl excreted valuable items. One day, she gave
these treasures out to the village, but they hated
her and killed her. Thereafter, her corpse was cut
into pieces and buried around. These pieces grew
into the various tuberous plants.
These myths can be read as food-origin myths,
but more generally they can be understood in the
theory of sacrifice or gift11. The death of God is the
sacrifice we human beings in this world offer, and
food is sent to us through this. Leach said that
dedicating sacrifice is the gift we offer to gods, and
we receive divine favor in return for this gift
(Culture and Communication).12
There is no end to give specific cases, in the
well-known Ainu ceremony of the Bear Fesitival
(熊送り: Iomante), the bear is sent off to the world
of the gods, and becomes the sacrifice by being
killed13. The meaning of this rite is that the bear
sacrificed comes back to this world again. Also,
living bears don’t be sent off to the gods. The bear
should die and lose its worldly figure in order to
move into another world. In the archaeological
case, the fact, that clay figures (土偶) are found to
be not perfect but broken to pieces, can be
interpreted as the sacrifice. (e.g. the clay figurines
from Tateishi Site in Iwate Prefecture [the Middle
Jomon period] and Shakado Site in Yamanashi
Prefecture [the Middle Jomon period] )14. The clay
figures were made to be broken, crashed to pieces
and buried around. Through sacrificing the clay
figures, people prayed for the productiveness of the
earth and gained it.
According to Leach, there is the metaphor for the
①The significance of religion (the material meaning)
It is to stabilize the relationship between human
beings and nature. It gives food and vital energies
from the outside to the inside.
Kami and the Buddha = the Spirits = vitality
②The significance of religion (the abstract meaning)
Religion shows the significance of human living
and maintains the order of community.
③ The significance of religion (the meaning in
modern times)9
Before the Middle Ages, the significance of religion
was the mighty power which Kami and the
Buddha had, and worked on the community.
While this power was awe-inspiring, it gave
divine protection. However, in modern times, it
came to work on directly each individual away
from the frame of communities, and then Kami
and the Buddha became the existence that just
did divine protection. In other words, religion
became the place for the realization of personal
desire or the place where consoles on individual
anxiety and supports internally.
(4) How does religion control nature? (【Shinsen】Ⅳ)
Nature existed in the outside of human relations,
and there were food and the source of human lives.
When people try to control this nature by setting
religion at the further outside of nature, food
becomes Kami. Religion controlled nature and
stabilized the relationship between human beings
and food.
Now, how does religion control nature? Food is
Kami. We offer food to this Kami. Then, how does
Shinsen (offerings) act on the realization of prayers?
Hereinafter, consider this question from the general
system of sacrificing.
In the Kojiki, there is the goddess called
Oogetsuhime (大宜(気)都比売). Yaoyorozu-no-kami
(八百万の神), meaning “eight million Kami”, asked
her for their food. She produced a variety of
delicious foods from her nose, mouth and buttocks,
and gave them these foods. Susanoo-no-Mikoto (須
佐之男命) regarded this as dirty acts, and he killed
29
TAKASHIMA, Motohiro:Food in Shinto
death in sacrificing (Culture and Communication)15.
The gift for the next world should be sent off along
the same road where the souls of the dead travel.
Thus the gift is killed to separate its metaphysical
substance from its body. Then its substance is
transferred to the next world through the rites like
the funeral.
【Figure.1】shows how does this world connect to
the next world. Through annual rites, the fertility
of another world is sent to this world, and Kegare
(pollution) of this world is sent to another world.
As for (+) Festival and (-) Funeral rites, I
apply the interpretation of cultural anthropology
to the idea of Ritual (礼) in Chinese thought and
order it. The essence of Ritual in China is ancestor
worship as the practice of Filial piety (孝). It is said
that main rituals are the puberty rite, the
marriage rite , the funeral and the festival (冠昏喪
祭、礼之大者,『小学』程伊川). While the puberty rite,
the marriage rite and the festival are rites of
integration (統合儀礼) for tsung-tsu (宗族 Souzoku:
Chinese paternity kindred), the funeral is rites of
separation (分離儀礼)16. Souzoku don’t exist in
Japan, but similar-looking one exists as the rites of
community.
【Figure.2】 shows how does Shinsen (the sacrifice)
be sent from this world to another world. We can
understand that Shinsen (the sacrifice) moves to
another world by the same route as the dead, sin
and death take in 【Figure.1】.
The sacrifice is killed (i.e. Oogetsuhime), is destroyed
(i.e. clay figures), loses its worldly figure (i.e. Shinsen)
and is sent to invisible another world. Shinsen
doesn’t be killed or destroyed, but it loses its
worldly figure as the sacred object. Consecration
equals being killed or destroyed.
Food is sent to another world as the sacrifice.
For example in the case of Oogetsuhime, food died
as the sacrifice. It isn’t the tradition concerning
mere the death of food, but it is about the death of
Kami. The dead food would become Kami. Therefore
the Kami of food comes to exist in another world,
the sacrifice is committed to memory as the death
of Kami.
The sacrifice is sent to invisible world and revitalizes
the activities in another world. The sacrifice (i.e.
Shinsen) loses its worldly figure, moves the vitality
and energy (religion = the invisible outside) which
work on another world, and appears as the concrete
food (nature = the visible outside). It is equivalent
to working on the Kami of another world, revitalizing
their activities and receiving food as their blessings.
This is that the gift demands the return.
In this way, the food (the sacrifice) as Shinsen
lurks, is sent off to the Kami of food and becomes
obvious as the concrete food. The circulation of the
vitality and energy is formed between this world
and another world. The grounds that religion
controls nature are here.
■Figure.1
Fertility
【This world】
The creating and becoming powers or the spirits,living (+)
【Another world】
Kegare
The dead or sin,death(-)
(+) Festival
……【Festival = the transformation of ancestral festival】
Shogatsu 正月 [January]
Obon お盆 [July]
……【The rites for fertility】 Toshigoi no matsuri 祈年祭 [February]
…Spring festival,harvest festival in advance
Niinamesai (Daijosai) 新嘗祭(大嘗祭) [November]
…Autumn festival,harvest festival
(-) Funeral rites
……【The rites for removing Kegare】
Ooharai (Great Purification)大祓 [Decenber]
30
日仏共同ゼミ・シンポジウム
■Figure.2
Food
(+)
【This world】
【Another world】the Kami of food
Shinsen
(The sacrifice)
(-)
注
とコミュニケーション』第 6 章、紀伊國屋書店、1981)
1. 柳田国男『明治大正史 世相篇』
(平凡社・東洋文庫、1967、
を参照。
p.1、4、332、334)
。
9. 高島元洋「近世仏教の位置づけと排仏論」
(
『日本の仏教』
2. 同上 p.80、39、38、66、217、210。
第 4 号、法蔵館、1995)を参照。
3. 高島元洋『山崎闇斎―日本朱子学と垂加神道』
(ぺりかん
10. 佐々木高明『日本の歴史① 日本史誕生』
(集英社、1991、
p.201~)
。
社、1992、p.520)
、
『お伊勢まいり』
(神宮司庁、1988、
p.11)
。
11.前掲『文化とコミュニケーション』、Marcel Mauss,
Sociologie et Anthropologie, Paris: Presses Universitaires
4. 國學院大學日本文化研究所編『神道事典』
(弘文堂、1994、
de France,1968(M・モース「贈与論―太古の社会におけ
p.205)などを参照。
5. 前掲『お伊勢まいり』p.133。古儀については『延喜式』
る交換の諸形態と契機」
(有地亨・伊藤昌司・山口俊夫訳
『社会学と人類学』Ⅰ、弘文堂、1973)などを参照。
巻第四(神祇四 伊勢大神宮)などを参照。
12. 前掲『文化とコミュニケーション』p.167。
6. 西宮一民校注『古事記』
「神名の釈義」
(新潮社・新潮日
13. 山田孝子『アイヌの世界観』
(講談社・講談社選書メチ
本古典集成、1979)を参照。
7. このような非人格的な「神」観念(マナ)については、
エ、1994、p.211 など)
、前掲『日本の歴史① 日本史誕
生』p.206、296。
高島元洋『日本人の感情』
(ぺりかん社、2000、p.57)を
14. 前掲『日本の歴史① 日本史誕生』p.201~。
参照。
8. J.G.Frazer,The Golden Bough,London:Macmillan and
15. p.前掲『文化とコミュニケーション』p.163~。
Company,1890(永橋卓介訳『金枝篇』第 3 章、岩波文庫・
16. 統合儀礼・分離儀礼については、前掲『文化とコミュニ
岩波書店、1952)
、Edmund Leach, Culture and Communication,
ケーション』p.160 などを参照。
Cambridge University Press,1976(青木・宮坂訳『文化
たかしま もとひろ/お茶の水女子大学大学院 人間文化創成科学研究科 教授
31
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