JAPANESE ARCHITECTURE にほんのアーキテク チャー (日本の建築) この プレゼンテーションは、 レイ と ブランドン によってなされた。 と ノア ORIGINS OF DESIGN – ASUKA & NARA PERIODS あすかじだい と ならじだい Asuka Period: 538-710 A.D. - Brought Chinese influence to Japan, esp. in temple architecture. - First introduction of Buddhism. - Brought sophisticated design to Japanese temples. - Intertwined complex architecture with nature. Nara Period: 710-794 A.D. - New temples were constructed in cities rather than out in rural areas - Just like in the Asuka period, the Nara period relied heavily on outside influences, but mainly Chinese. - Even Shinto architecture, traditionally Japanese, began to sway towards Buddhist temple architecture as Buddhism began to rise as one of the main religions in Japan. SHINTO ARCHITECTURE - （しん と） Shinto architecture was heavily spiritually influenced, based on building shrines to commemorate natural regions which were said to attract kami （かみ）, or spirits. Torii （とりい）- Gates marking a shrine entrance, symbolize sacred place. Komainu （こまいぬ）- Mythical lion dogs used on either side of an entrance to a Shinto shrine to ward off negative spirits. Purification Trough - Used to purify ones self. You wash your hands and mouth using a dipper before entering a shrine. Honden (Offering Hall) （ほんでん）- Hall where the kami are said to be protected, in the innermost chamber are the kami are represented by a sacred object. The public is not allowed entrance in this area. Shimenawa （しめなわ）- Straw rope marking boundary to a sacred area Japanese Traditional Housing & Interior Design -Do not have set rooms for separate uses - Use portable furniture, stored in oshiire （おしいれ） -Makeshift rooms are formed with fusuma （ふすま） -Traditional houses had only one large space and small bathroom, kitchen, and toilet extensions to the side - Rouka （ろうか）surrounded the edges of the home, with wood and shōji （しょうじ）paper windows CASTLES -（しろ） - Originally there were around 5000 castles in Japan. Now there are only about 100 still existent. - Medieval castles were built primarily out of wood for insulating purposes - Utilised the surrounding environment to their advantage - Built to defend important regions (ports, trade crossroads, rivers, etc) - When used in a name, shiro is changed to jō ひめじじょう と ひろしまじょう Western Influence in Japanese Architecture - Major Westernisation occurred only after the Meiji Restoration. - By the late 19th and early 20th century many public spaces had begun to incorporate chairs. - Urban buildings lost their traditional flair and became more internationally blended. Showa Period (1926-1989) しょうじだい - In 1946 the Prefabricated Housing Association was made to help the shortage of residence - Metabolists provided ideas of rejuvenation, supporting an organic-inspired vision of future cities - Other architects like Kazuo Shinohara clung to traditional ideas of space Heisei Period (1989-Present) へいせいじだい - Developed after Japan’s “bubble era” collapsed in 1991 - Economic stagnation has taken hold of Japan - Commercial architecture diminished; projects strictly government issued - Assimilation into standard international building concept - General loss of architectural creativity From Sacred to Secular As Japan was developing out a feudal country over the course of the 18th and 19th centuries, architecture went from being spiritually oriented to practical and utilitarian. Westernisation saw the gradual demise of shrines and traditional design in favour of unimaginative European structural formats associated with trade and military functions. Schools, banks, and hotels also became more and more populous. Shown to the left is an example of a traditional Buddhist temple (above) and a Science Museum located in Osaka (below). The Sanyo Solar Ark in Gifu, Japan, is 315 metres long, 37 metres high with 5,000 solar panels to produce 500,000kWh of energy per year. MODERN MONUMENTS 現代の記念碑 The Aoyama Technical College was designed by architect Makoto Sei Watanabe and features many elements respective to Japanese modern architecture as it arose in the ``bubble era`` of design. げんだいのきねんひ Makoto Sei Watanabe The Japanese “bubble era” was a time between 1986 to 1991 when tariffs were introduced in order to encourage saving, resulting in the booming of stock and credit in Japan’s market. M E T A B O ＆Bubble Economy L I S ミッタボリズン と M バブル景気（けいき） “Metabolism” was started in the 1950s by a group of young Japanese architects who had a vision of a future with versatile, large-scale structures that would resemble organic development. THE FUTURE WHAT COMES NEXT? クイズ Who designed the Aoyama Technical College? Was it: a) Oda Nobunaga b) Makoto Sei Watanabe c) Ichiro Suzuki d) Mori Terumoto クイズ On average, how many kWh does the Sanyo Solar Ark produce annually? a) 100,000-200,000 kWh b) 200,000-400,000 kWh c) 500,000-600,000 kWh d) 800,000-1,000,000 kWh クイズ Which of these eras came first? a) Asuka b) Heisei c) Showa d) Azuchi - Momoyama クイズ Which of these eras came last? a) Nara b) Heisei c) Asuka d) Showa クイズ The Asuka period is home to which traditional building? a) Nakagin Capsule Tower b) Kami c) Pagoda d) Shinto shrine FIN. QUESTIONS?