JAPANESE ARCHITECTURE
にほんのアーキテク チャー (日本の建築)
この プレゼンテーションは、 レイ と ブランドン
によってなされた。
と
ノア
ORIGINS OF DESIGN – ASUKA & NARA PERIODS
あすかじだい
と
ならじだい
Asuka Period: 538-710 A.D.
- Brought Chinese influence to Japan, esp.
in temple architecture.
- First introduction of Buddhism.
- Brought sophisticated design to Japanese
temples.
- Intertwined complex architecture with
nature.
Nara Period: 710-794 A.D.
- New temples were constructed in cities rather
than out in rural areas
- Just like in the Asuka period, the Nara period
relied heavily on outside influences, but mainly
Chinese.
- Even Shinto architecture, traditionally
Japanese, began to sway towards Buddhist
temple architecture as Buddhism began to rise as
one of the main religions in Japan.
SHINTO ARCHITECTURE - (しん
と)
Shinto architecture was heavily spiritually
influenced, based on building shrines to
commemorate natural regions which were said to
attract kami (かみ), or spirits.
Torii (とりい)- Gates marking a shrine entrance,
symbolize sacred place.
Komainu (こまいぬ)- Mythical lion dogs used
on either side of an entrance to a Shinto shrine to
ward off negative spirits.
Purification Trough - Used to purify ones self. You
wash your hands and mouth using a dipper before
entering a shrine.
Honden (Offering Hall) (ほんでん)- Hall where
the kami are said to be protected, in the innermost
chamber are the kami are represented by a sacred
object. The public is not allowed entrance in this
area.
Shimenawa (しめなわ)- Straw rope marking
boundary to a sacred area
Japanese Traditional Housing & Interior Design
-Do not have set rooms for separate uses
- Use portable furniture, stored in oshiire (おしいれ)
-Makeshift rooms are formed with fusuma (ふすま)
-Traditional houses had only one large space and small bathroom, kitchen, and toilet extensions
to the side
- Rouka (ろうか)surrounded the edges of the home, with wood and shōji (しょうじ)paper
windows
CASTLES -(しろ)
- Originally there were around 5000 castles
in Japan. Now there are only about 100 still
existent.
- Medieval castles were built primarily out
of wood for insulating purposes
- Utilised the surrounding environment to
their advantage
- Built to defend important regions (ports,
trade crossroads, rivers, etc)
- When used in a name, shiro is changed to
jō
ひめじじょう
と
ひろしまじょう
Western Influence in Japanese
Architecture
- Major Westernisation occurred
only after the Meiji Restoration.
- By the late 19th and early 20th
century many public spaces had
begun to incorporate chairs.
- Urban buildings lost their traditional
flair and became more
internationally blended.
Showa Period (1926-1989)
しょうじだい
- In 1946 the Prefabricated Housing
Association was made to help the
shortage of residence
- Metabolists provided ideas of
rejuvenation, supporting an
organic-inspired vision of future
cities
- Other architects like Kazuo
Shinohara clung to traditional
ideas of space
Heisei Period (1989-Present)
へいせいじだい
- Developed after Japan’s “bubble era”
collapsed in 1991
- Economic stagnation has taken hold of
Japan
- Commercial architecture diminished;
projects strictly government issued
- Assimilation into standard international
building concept
- General loss of architectural creativity
From Sacred to Secular
As Japan was developing out a feudal country
over the course of the 18th and 19th centuries,
architecture went from being spiritually
oriented to practical and utilitarian.
Westernisation saw the gradual demise of
shrines and traditional design in favour of
unimaginative European structural formats
associated with trade and military functions.
Schools, banks, and hotels also became more
and more populous.
Shown to the left is an example of a traditional
Buddhist temple (above) and a Science
Museum located in Osaka (below).
The Sanyo Solar Ark in Gifu,
Japan, is 315 metres long, 37
metres high with 5,000 solar
panels to produce 500,000kWh
of energy per year.
MODERN
MONUMENTS
現代の記念碑
The Aoyama Technical College was designed
by architect Makoto Sei Watanabe and
features many elements respective to
Japanese modern architecture as it arose in
the ``bubble era`` of design.
げんだいのきねんひ
Makoto Sei Watanabe
The Japanese “bubble
era” was a time between
1986 to 1991 when tariffs
were introduced in order
to encourage saving,
resulting in the booming of
stock and credit in
Japan’s market.
M
E
T
A
B
O &Bubble Economy
L
I
S
ミッタボリズン と
M バブル景気(けいき)
“Metabolism” was started in the 1950s by a
group of young Japanese architects who had a
vision of a future with versatile, large-scale
structures that would resemble organic
development.
THE FUTURE
WHAT COMES NEXT?
クイズ

Who designed the Aoyama Technical College?
Was it:
a) Oda Nobunaga
b) Makoto Sei Watanabe
c) Ichiro Suzuki
d) Mori Terumoto
クイズ

On average, how many kWh does the Sanyo Solar
Ark produce annually?
a) 100,000-200,000 kWh
b) 200,000-400,000 kWh
c) 500,000-600,000 kWh
d) 800,000-1,000,000 kWh
クイズ

Which of these eras came first?
a) Asuka
b) Heisei
c) Showa
d) Azuchi - Momoyama
クイズ

Which of these eras came last?
a) Nara
b) Heisei
c) Asuka
d) Showa
クイズ

The Asuka period is home to which traditional
building?
a) Nakagin Capsule Tower
b) Kami
c) Pagoda
d) Shinto shrine
FIN.
QUESTIONS?
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Japanese Architecture